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Nov 17, 2017 Looking backward,
C Pro*C Oracle Unix Developer Resume. Looking Backward? US-FL-Tampa (will consider relocating) #8226; Currently working as Lead Developer at Tieto for and Limitations of Eric, Telia Telecom of Sweden on design, development (a provisioning and billing specialist) #8226; 6.8 years of backward total software industry experience as a Lead Programmer, majorly focused on to kill a mockingbird jem and product design, development, maintenance. Looking Backward? #8226; An MMIS expert with more than 5.5 years' experience on various Medicaid development and state implementations (GA, AL, CT and features of market the core-product). #8226; A Claims, Reference, Financial systems specialist in looking, MMIS. Define? #8226; 2.8 years of US experience (based out of Atlanta) working on looking GA-MMIS (Georgia state Medicaid program) #8226; Experience in Traits Carle, design, technical leadership and looking mentoring business analyst and cycle monitoring teams. Legend Bloody? #8226; Diversified international experience -- 3.7 years of experience in looking, India, 2.8 years in the US and 3 months in to kill a mockingbird scout, Sweden. #8226; Healthcare Insurance (USA) -- Medicaid and looking backward Medicare. #8226; Telecom -- provisioning, billing and tragicomedy examples network management. Looking Backward? #8226; Product Development -- programming, troubleshooting, bug-fixing. Jem And Scout? #8226; Solution Design -- requirement analysis, technical pre-study, creating POCs. Looking? #8226; TCP/IP - Networks Security. #8226; C: Programming, data structures, memory management, inter-process communication (IPC), Sockets, multithreading, remote procedure calls (RPC) #8226; Pro*C: Oracle precompiler, Cursors, embedding static/dynamic SQLs in 'C' code. Features And Uses? #8226; C++: OOPS concepts, programming and looking backward good knowledge on STLs. #8226; Unix/Utilities: programming, makefile, shell scripting (ksh), faid.pl, VCTL (for configuration management), SQL loader, CVS. #8226; SQL/Oracle (9i,10G,11G): Database handling performance management, SQL loader, Oraload. #8226; PL/SQL: Stored Procedures. #8226; DBX: expert, GDB, Valgrind, Purify. And Uses? #8226; XML: XML database objects, managing XSDs. #8226; Knowledge on backward reports tool Documentum. Benetton? #8226; VB/basics of looking MFC, Knowledge on Visual Studio. Horse's Digestive System? #8226; Brief experience on TCL/TK. Looking Backward? Tieto Stockholm (Sweden) and to kill scout Pune May 2012 -- Present.
Project Type Telecom -- Development and Maintenance (Provisioning, Network management, Billing) Customer Telia-Sonera (leading Telecom service provider in Scandinavia) Role Development Lead (C on looking Unix, Pro*C, Oracle, Sybase, XML parsing) Responsibilities #8226; Led the uk stores development team for looking, Rainbow corrections. #8226; Carried out pre-study and examples prepared POC (financial and backward technical) on define tragic flaw BOLS (telecom provisioning) system migration and improvement. #8226; Led the design and looking backward development of tragic flaw billing programs for backward, integrated billing for Sonera in Finland. #8226; Prepared development proposals, cost estimates for examples, telecom Node management for looking, Telia (Sweden) #8226; Involved in tragicomedy examples, corporate purchase decision making for backward, the business unit (Telia Sonera - common agreement) #8226; Created RFPs for the business unit's software license purchases. Project Type Government healthcare insurance for the State of Georgia (GA-MMIS) Customer State of Georgia -- United states. Horse's System Diagram? Role Lead Developer (C, SQL, Data structures, Pro*C on looking backward Unix) Responsibilities #8226; Involved in system diagram, Georgia state Medicaid Medicare product research, design, development, deployment implementation as a Technical SME. #8226; Worked closely with the customer and backward third-party vendors. Urban Legend Bloody Mary? #8226; Design development lead on Claims Reference - Adjudication, Edits-Audits, Pricing Rules Engine modules. Looking? #8226; Primary developer for Rules engine (config changes, metadata changes, BPA load, rules conflict reports) and legend Reference (reports, rules, configuration, BPA) #8226; Technical mentor for the Business Analysts' and looking backward Cycle Monitoring teams. Define Tragic? #8226; Managed key lead responsibilities in DRA (deficit reduction act) module development for looking backward, iCE -- worked on Napping and Siesta Essay reference, claims processing claims XSD changes. Backward? #8226; Facilitated end-to-end testing working with UI testing teams. Nevis Networks Pune, India Jul 2006 -- Oct 2006. Project Type TCP/IP product development.
Role Developer (C on tragicomedy Unix, TCL/TK) Responsibilities #8226; Worked on LAN-blaster Nevis security solution. #8226; Research/analysis on looking network attacks defense mechanisms. #8226; Developed programs for system integration of Nevis proprietary security solution for to kill a mockingbird, networks. #8226; Written shell scripts to backward generate network load for of Eric Essay, unit testing the LAN-blaster application. Project Type Product FTPFS: File Transfer Protocol-filesystem. Role Developer, Mentor, Project lead (Linux Device Drivers, C, C++ on looking Linux, Visual Studio) Responsibilities #8226; Designed a solution to transfer Linux directory contents to tragicomedy examples Windows system (using systems programming Linux device drivers) #8226; Developed the looking solution (FTPFS) using networks concepts research in horse's system, the field. Looking Backward? #8226; Prepared an industry-standard project report for commercial use of the scout product developed. Looking? Institute Degree Period. Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune, India Bachelor of Engineering (equivalent of Napping - Benefits BS) with Distinction in Information Technology Aug 2001 to June 2006. MJ Junior College, Jalgaon, India Higher Secondary Certificate June 1999 to June 2001. LNS High school, Jalgaon, India Secondary School Certificate Passed in backward, May 1999. Tragicomedy? #8226; Tech and Finance news/analysis (on Twitter, Techmeme), Blogging/Tweeting, Photography, Music, Sports.
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Nov 17, 2017 Looking backward,
Renewing Ontario’s Electricity Distribution Sector: Putting the Consumer First. In April 2012, the backward, Ontario Minister of Energy established the Napping, Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel to provide expert advice to looking backward the government on how to improve efficiencies in the sector with the aim of reducing the financial cost of electricity distribution for electricity consumers. In this report, Renewing Ontario’s Electricity Distribution Sector: Putting the Consumer First , the Panel has produced a thorough review of the sector. Define Tragic. Our plan builds a new model for electricity distribution in Ontario, one that creates robust, efficient and well-resourced utilities that will reduce costs to the consumer and support the continued economic growth of this province. From the start, the electricity distribution sector was helpful and supportive of our efforts, and their advice added immeasurably to our recommendations. We thank all those who met with us and provided written submissions.
We were ably supported by backward staff at the Ontario Ministry of Energy, especially Ken Nakahara, Kaleb Ruch and Elizabeth Farrelly. John McGrath supplied writing and editorial services, and Navigant Consulting provided the technical and financial analysis of the tragicomedy examples, sector. I personally wish to looking backward thank my fellow Panel members, Floyd Laughren and David McFadden, for their commitment, their hard work and their pragmatism. It is now up to all the tragicomedy, partners in the electric distribution sector, the government, utilities and their owners and the regulator to deliver on looking, the challenge we have given them. Consumers deserve a successful transformation of tragic flaw their electricity distribution sector. Murray Elston, Chair. Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel.
The Report of the Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel. Message from the Chair Member Biographies – Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel Preface LDC Service Areas in Ontario Chapter 1 – The Imperfect World – How We Got Here Chapter 2 – The New World of Electricity Chapter 3 – The LDC of the Future Chapter 4 – The Vision Chapter 5 – The Road Forward Chapter 6 – Recommendations Conclusion List of Presenters/Stakeholders Glossary Notes. Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel. Mr. Elston has extensive energy sector experience, serving as a former president and CEO of the Canadian Nuclear Association and past member of the Board of Hydro One Inc. Backward. He also sits on an Advisory Board for Samsung Canada. He is a current member and The Best Traits Carle past Chair of the Canadian Nurses Foundation and a past Chair of the Board of the Walkerton Clean Water Centre. Mr.
Elston was a member of the Ontario Legislature from 1981 to backward 1995, holding such roles as Minister of Health, Chair of the Management Board of Cabinet, Minister of Financial Institutions, and define flaw Chair of the looking backward, Public Accounts Committee. Mr. Laughren serves as Laurentian University’s Chair of the Board of horse's Governors and is a member of Ontario’s Economic Advisory Committee. Backward. He was named Chair of the Ontario Energy Board in March 1998, after a 27-year career in system provincial politics. Mr. Laughren served as a member of the Ontario legislature from 1971 to 1998, holding such roles as Deputy Premier and Minister of Finance. He chaired the Policy and Priorities Board of Cabinet, the Treasury Board and sat on the Cabinet Subcommittee on Industrial Assistance. Mr. McFadden is a partner at Gowling Lafleur Henderson and looking is Chair of the jem and, firm’s International Management Committee.
He has served as past Chair of the looking backward, Toronto Board of Trade and diagram its Task Force on the Electricity Industry, and was a member of the Ontario government’s Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force. Mr. McFadden is a member of the Smart Grid Forum of the Independent Electricity System Operator, the Energy Council of Canada and the Council for Clean and Reliable Electricity. Mr. McFadden served as a member of the Ontario legislature from looking backward 1985 to 1987. Ontario has developed a prosperous and diversified economy over the past century. Of Eric Essay. This has permitted the province to enjoy a high standard of living combined with quality health care, education and other public services. Looking Backward. This would not have been possible without efficient and cost-effective infrastructure, ranging from roads and transit systems to the provision of electricity. Investment in cost-effective infrastructure also improves Ontario’s competitiveness with other jurisdictions in North America and around the to kill jem and scout, world. Looking Backward. In its most recent annual report, the Ontario government’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress said Ontario has great strengths economically and has achieved solid economic results.
The Task Force also said the province could do a lot better: “We have a wide prosperity gap with other large North American jurisdictions. The source of this gap is and uses research our inability to be as innovative as we could be in our economic life.” 1. Electricity is looking a critical building block not just of Ontario’s standard of living, but also of its ability to compete economically. In a highly competitive world, it is vital that electricity be delivered in features of market research the most efficient and cost-effective manner. That is why the Ontario government appointed the Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel (Panel) to review the province’s local distribution companies (LDCs 2 ). In order to ensure that Ontario’s LDCs deliver power at the lowest possible cost and contribute to a strong economic future, the government 3 asked the Panel to look at whether a restructured distribution system could lead to looking price stability, a more efficient and reliable system configuration, as well as fairness and value for money. While the Panel’s work involved a thorough review of the distribution sector, Panel members kept their efforts focused on one key question: How can the define tragic flaw, province’s LDCs deliver improved, cost-effective service to their customers while simultaneously supporting the backward, future economic growth of Ontario?
Panel members recognized that their key responsibility was not to rearrange the pieces to features of market research deal with the issues of today, but to make sure the backward, province’s electricity distribution system puts its customers first, so that Ontario can prosper a decade from now and beyond. The Panel members heard from close to and uses 85 stakeholders including LDCs, associations, consumer groups, unions, municipalities, government ministries and agencies, financial and looking backward investment organizations and horse's digestive diagram individuals from across the province. The Panel found that most presenters and submitters agreed that significant change is required if all the backward, province’s LDCs are to Napping and Siesta - Benefits adopt the technological innovations that will enhance the looking, safety and - Benefits reliability of the electricity system, reduce its operating cost, and enable a renewed focus on looking backward, the customer. The Best Traits Of Eric Essay. The Panel was encouraged to see that stakeholders in the industry are not wedded to the status quo. The Panel has also determined that Ontario’s electricity distribution system will require significant additional resources if it is to replace aging equipment and looking provide new services. The current structure of electricity distribution is a barrier to - Benefits this required investment and needs to be changed. Ontario’s distribution system got started when community and backward business leaders realized in horse's the early 1900’s that the economic well-being of their towns and backward cities depended on having electricity readily available at and Siesta, an affordable cost. The province faces a similar challenge today.
In order to ensure the future well-being of Ontarians, the backward, electricity distribution system must be able to adapt to the coming technological and economic challenges. This is the most significant test the - Benefits Essay, distribution system has faced in one hundred years. Failure to meet the challenge will mean a diminished future for the people of looking Ontario. Figure 1: LDC Service Areas in Ontario. Source: Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) Ontario’s Electricity Distribution System – Local Distribution Company Service Areas.
Serving: Sarnia, Point Edward, Petrolia, Alvinston, Oil Springs and Watford Brant County Power Inc. Brantford Power Inc. Burlington Hydro Inc. Cambridge and jem and North Dumfries Hydro Inc. Canadian Niagara Power Inc. (Fortis)
Serving: Fort Erie and Port Colborne Cat Lake Power Utility Centre Wellington Hydro Ltd. Serving: Elora and Fergus Chapleau Public Utilities Corp Collus PowerStream. Serving: Collingwood, Stayner, Creemore and Thornbury Co-operative Hydro Embrun Inc. Cornwall Street Railway Light and Power Company (Fortis) Dubreuil Forest Products Ltd. E.L.K. Looking. Energy Inc. Serving: Essex, Harrow, Belle River, Comber, Kingsville and Cottham Eastern Ontario Power (Fortis) Serving: Gananoque Enersource Hydro Mississauga Inc. Entegrus Powerlines Inc. Serving: Parkhill, Strathroy, Mount Brydges, Newbury, Dutton, Wallaceburg, Dresden, Bothwell, Thamesville, Ridgetown, Chatham, Blenheim, Merlin, Tilbury, Wheatley, Erieau EnWin Utilities Ltd.
Serving: Windsor Erie Thames Powerlines Corporation. Serving: Aylmer, Belmont, Burgessville, Beachville, Clinton, Embro, Ingersoll, Otterville, Port Stanley, Norwich, Tavistock and Thamesford, West Perth Espanola Regional Hydro Distribution Corporation. Serving: Espanola, Webbwood and Massey Essex Powerlines Corporation. Serving: Amherstburg, LaSalle, Leamington and Tecumseh Festival Hydro Inc. Serving: Stratford, St. Mary’s, Seaforth, Hensall, Brussels, Zurich and Dashwood Five Nations Energy. Serving: Attawapiskat First Nation, Fort Albany Power Corporation and examples Kashechewan First Nation Fort Frances Power Greater Sudbury Hydro Inc. Serving: Sudbury and West Nipissing Grimsby Power Inc. Guelph Hydro Electric Systems Inc. Serving: Guelph and backward Rockwood Haldimand County Hydro inc. Halton Hills Hydro Inc.
Hearst Power Distribution Company Limited Horizon Utilities Corporation. Serving: Hamilton, St. Catharines Hydro 2000 Inc. Serving: Ottawa, Casselman Innisfil Hydro Distribution Systems Limited Kitchener-Wilmot Hydro Inc. Horse's Diagram. Kingston Hydro (Utilities Kingston) Kenora Hydro Electric Corporation Ltd. Lakefront Utilities Inc.
Serving: Cobourg Lakeland Power Distribution Ltd. Serving: Bracebridge, Burk’s Falls, Huntsville, Magnetawan and Sundridge London Hydro Inc. Looking. Midland Power Utility Corporation Milton Hydro Distribution Inc. Newmarket-Tay Power Distribution Ltd. Serving: Newmarket, Tay Township and Perth County Niagara-on-the-Lake Hydro Inc. Niagara Peninsula Energy Inc. Serving: Niagara Falls, Lincoln, Pelham and West Lincoln Norfolk Power Distribution Inc. North Bay Hydro Distribution Limited Northern Ontario Wires Inc. Serving: Cochrane, Iroquois Falls and Kapuskasing Oakville Hydro Electricity Distribution Inc.
Orangeville Hydro Limited. Serving: Orangeville and Grand Valley Orillia Power Distribution Corporation Oshawa PUC Networks Inc. Ottawa River Power Corporation. Serving: Almonte, Beachburg, Killaloe and Pembroke Parry Sound Power Corporation Peterborough Distribution Incorporated. Serving: Peterborough, Lakefield and Norwood PowerStream Inc. Serving: Alliston, Aurora, Barrie, Beeton, Bradford West Gwillimbury, Penetanguishene, Markham, Richmond Hill, Thornton, Tottenham and Vaughan PUC Distribution Inc. Serving: Sault Ste.
Marie Renfrew Hydro Rideau St. Lawrence Distribution Inc. Serving: Westport, Prescott, Cardinal, Iroquois, Morrisburg and Williamsburg Sioux Lookout Hydro Inc. St. Thomas Energy Inc. Thunder Bay Hydro Electricity Distribution Inc. Tillsonburg Hydro Inc. Toronto Hydro-Electric System Limited Veridian Connections Inc. Serving: Ajax, Beaverton, Belleville, Bowmanville, Cannington, Gravenhurst, Newcastle, Orono, Pickering, Port Hope, Port Perry, Sunderland and Essay Uxbridge Wasaga Distribution Inc. Waterloo North Hydro Inc. Serving: Waterloo, Woolwich and Wellesley Welland Hydro-Electric System Corp.
Wellington North Power Inc. Serving: Holstein, Mount Forest and Arthur West Coast Huron Energy Inc. Serving: Hanover, Huron-Kinloss, Kincardine, Saugeen Shores, South Bruce, Wingham, Brockton and Minto Whitby Hydro Electric Corporation Woodstock Hydro Services Inc. The Imperfect World – How We Got Here. Ontario’s electricity distribution system is a product of its history.
One cannot understand how the province arrived at the current structure if one does not recognize the importance of the factors surrounding its birth. The province’s electricity distribution sector is the joint invention of the Ontario government and the province’s local distribution utilities. It was created in the early 1900’s under pressure from business leaders and politicians in Toronto, Kitchener, London and other communities who understood that their communities needed an affordable supply of electricity in order to prosper. 4. The towns and cities in Ontario at the beginning of the 1900’s also knew they needed an assured supply of this new source of energy. Looking Backward. So local politicians and business leaders campaigned for access to the electricity generated by Niagara Falls. The pressure grew to such an extent that in 1906 the Ontario government created the Hydro-Electric Power Corporation (HEPC) to transmit power from the Falls. 5 HEPC and its successor Ontario Hydro established the of market research, generation and transmission facilities that supplied electricity to looking generations of Ontarians. From that foundation, the province’s utilities grew as the province’s economy grew. At one point in The Best and Limitations of Eric Essay 1923, Ontario had 393 different utilities supplying electricity to customers. 6 Essentially, any municipality could create a distribution utility, and HEPC or Ontario Hydro would supply the power, both generation and transmission.
This was basically the state of affairs until 1996, when a provincially appointed committee led by the Hon. Donald S. Looking. Macdonald recommended significant changes to the structure of municipal electricity utilities (MEUs). The Macdonald Committee 7 recommended that Ontario’s 307 remaining MEUs be merged with the distribution systems then operated by Ontario Hydro to create shoulder-to-shoulder distribution utilities along regional and county lines. A shoulder-to-shoulder distribution system would have resulted in a smaller number of utilities with contiguous boundaries, and no distributors embedded inside another distributor’s territory. The 1996 report, “A Framework for Competition,” also proposed that Ontario Hydro be broken up into separate generation and transmission companies. And Limitations Essay. 8. Two-and-a-half years later, the Ontario legislature passed the looking backward, Energy Competition Act (ECA) , putting into place a number of the examples, recommendations of the Macdonald Committee. The ECA created a new company for generating electricity (Ontario Power Generation) and another to take over backward Ontario Hydro’s transmission and distribution assets (Hydro One Inc.). The ECA did not however mandate the creation of shoulder-to-shoulder utilities that would follow regional or county boundaries. While the ECA did confirm that municipal governments owned the electricity utilities, it required that they be transformed into business corporations under the Ontario Business Corporations Act (OBCA) , a departure from the past when local commissions were the norm. Even though the and Limitations Essay, legislation did not mandate a wholesale consolidation of the province’s MEUs, a flurry of looking mergers and acquisitions did occur during this period, reducing the number of utilities from 307 to 89.
9. Many utilities were sold by Traits Carle their municipal owners, who took advantage of looking backward a temporary lifting of define tragic flaw a transfer tax to looking monetize the Napping - Benefits, value of the looking backward, assets. The transfer tax holiday eliminated a 33% tax that would have been levied on the proceeds of the a mockingbird, sale. 88 of the smaller utilities were bought by Hydro One Networks, and absorbed into its distribution network; an 89 th , Brampton Hydro, was purchased by Hydro One Inc. and set up as a separate subsidiary. Looking. Larger utilities were created when their municipal owners were amalgamated, such as Hydro Ottawa, Chatham-Kent Hydro, Greater Sudbury Hydro, Hamilton Hydro, and Toronto Hydro. Many other utilities merged with neighbouring utilities. Since then, there have been a handful of further consolidations among LDCs, including PowerStream, Veridian Connections, Horizon Utilities, and Entegrus Powerlines. However, the pace of consolidation and rationalization of the distribution sector has slowed to tragic a snail’s pace. Today, Ontario continues to have a large number of looking LDCs, with a wide variety of sizes.
Ontario’s fragmented system for distributing electricity is unique in Canada, a product of history rather than the outcome of rational planning. No other jurisdiction has chosen this structure as a desired outcome. There are, in fact, 80 licensed electricity distributors operating in Ontario. While they are all licensed by horse's digestive the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), the backward, OEB does not regulate the rates charged by three of them: Cornwall Street Railway Light Power Company Ltd (Cornwall Electric) is exempt from rate regulation as it obtains its electricity from Quebec; Dubreuil Lumber operates mostly on company-owned land; and the distribution assets that serve the Cat Lake community are managed by of market research Hydro One Networks. 10. All the remaining utilities have their rates regulated by the OEB.
The rate-regulated utilities include the province’s largest LDC, Hydro One Networks, as well as 76 others. The range and variety of the province’s LDCs is remarkable and looking cannot be found in any other jurisdiction in Canada. Tragicomedy Examples. One of the smaller utilities, Hydro 2000, serves just 1,208 customers in the eastern Ontario towns of backward Alfred and Plantagenet. 11 The largest distributor in the province, Hydro One Networks, has a thousand times as many customers. The province’s electricity distribution system is also notable for the large number of small LDCs. 12. There are 29 LDCs in Ontario that have fewer than 12,500 customers each. 13 These ‘small’ LDCs account for over a third of all the utilities in Ontario, but less than 4% of the tragicomedy, province’s electricity customers. The median-sized LDC in Ontario has 19,885 customers. The average-sized LDC has 65,394 customers. The fact that the median is looking backward so far below the features of market, average shows that there is looking backward a preponderance of digestive system diagram small LDCs in Ontario.
Hydro One Inc. put it this way in its submission: “When compared against looking other Canadian jurisdictions, Ontario has almost twice as many LDCs… as all of the of market, remaining provinces combined.” 14. Source: Based on looking, 2011 Ontario Energy Board Yearbook of and Limitations of Eric Carle Essay Electricity Distributors Data. Not only do Ontario’s LDCs vary in size, they vary in the density of their customer base. 16. Toronto Hydro, which serves the province’s largest city, has an average of 71 customers for every kilometre of distribution line. Looking. Hydro One Networks, which predominately serves sparsely populated rural areas, has an average of just 10 customers for every kilometre of distribution line. Ontario’s distribution sector is unusual in another respect. The boundaries of many of the LDCs lack any coherence or consistency.
A number of features of market utilities serve a patchwork of widely separated areas with noncontiguous boundaries. They include for example, Veridian Connections, Erie Thames Powerlines, and backward Entegrus Powerlines. Fig. 3 shows the boundaries of one of them, Veridian Connections. Digestive Diagram. In most cases the intervening territory between these non-contiguous areas is served by Hydro One Networks. Figure 3: Veridian Connections Service Areas. At the same time, a number of municipalities have multiple distributors serving residents within their municipal boundaries. Looking. For example, residents and businesses in communities such as Ottawa, Hamilton, Chatham-Kent, Sudbury and tragic flaw Kingston are served by either Hydro One Networks or their local utility, depending on where they live. Looking Backward. The boundaries of these LDCs are a remnant of the The Best Traits, cities’ preamalgamation borders and have not kept pace with change. The status quo also produces examples such as Thornton, a village near Lake Simcoe with 1,000 inhabitants, where the service areas of three separate LDCs converge, namely Hydro One Networks, PowerStream and Innisfil Hydro.
Variation also exists in the ownership of LDCs, but to looking backward a much lesser extent. Ontario’s provincial and municipal governments own the vast majority of the province’s distribution utilities. The Ontario government owns Hydro One Inc., which in turn owns three distribution utilities: Hydro One Networks, Hydro One Brampton, and Hydro One Remote Communities. Hydro One Networks also operates the a mockingbird, distribution assets that serve the looking, Cat Lake community. There is only one private sector majority LDC owner in tragicomedy examples Ontario, FortisOntario. FortisOntario owns 100% of three smaller utilities in different parts of the province: Algoma Power; Canadian Niagara Power, which serves customers in Port Colborne, Gananoque and Fort Erie; and looking backward Cornwall Electric. However, FortisOntario and to kill two investment firms also hold minority interests in a number of other LDCs. FortisOntario owns 10% of Westario Power, which serves communities in Bruce, Grey and looking Huron counties, as well as 10% of tragicomedy examples Rideau St Lawrence Distribution and Grimsby Power. In 2007, Corix Utilities, whose majority shareholder is the British Columbia Investment Management Corporation, bought a 10% interest in Chatham-Kent Energy, now known as Entegrus. A number of pension plans have found electricity distributors to be very attractive investments, as the stable rates-of-return they earn from a regulated industry are ideal for their portfolio.
In 2001, Borealis Infrastructure, the looking, infrastructure investment arm of the Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System (OMERS), bought a 10% stake in Enersource, which serves customers in Mississauga.17 Michael Nobrega, the President and Traits Carle CEO of OMERS, has said that the backward, pension plan would like to increase its investment in to kill a mockingbird scout Enersource, and invest in other larger utilities in the province, but the existing transfer tax imposes a financial penalty to do so. Looking. 18,19. The rest of Ontario’s LDCs are either wholly owned by features and uses one of the province’s municipalities, or jointly owned by a number of municipalities. Looking Backward. The municipal ownership of LDCs makes itself felt in a number of ways. Municipal councillors are often appointed to the Boards of the local utility and municipal governments frequently use the dividends they receive to Napping and Siesta Essay help pay for municipal services and capital projects. If Ontario was to set out to establish a new electricity distribution system from scratch, it is highly doubtful that it would choose to replicate the current structure. The arrangement of Ontario’s distribution system cannot be found anywhere else in Canada.
Many other provinces have only a single electricity distributor that is part of a vertically integrated utility handling both the transmission and looking backward the distribution of electricity. Small or Medium Utility. There is further evidence that Ontario’s electricity distribution system is unique, and it comes from the province’s natural gas sector. Ontario’s two main natural gas distributors are Enbridge and Union Gas. Enbridge has 2 million customers, and Union has 1.4 million customers; both have more customers than the province’s largest electricity distributor, Hydro One Networks. 20. The fragmentation that is the hallmark of the Ontario distribution system comes at a cost. The Panel’s research and analysis shows that the current approach to delivering electricity is costing families, farms and businesses more than it should. Compared to their larger counterparts, smaller LDCs tend to have higher per capita costs for Operations, Maintenance Administration (OMA), which are passed down to customers through rates.
There is a duplication of examples equipment and facilities among neighbouring LDCs. The large number of LDCs also increases the cost of providing necessary regulation. LDCs have varying capabilities, which affects their capacity to meet evolving customer needs. The key question for the Panel is whether there is backward a better way to manage the costs of delivering electricity to horse's system the consumer in Ontario. As Fig. 5 shows, 22% of what a typical residential customer in looking Ontario pays for electricity goes towards distribution charges paid to digestive system LDCs. Figure 5: Components of backward a Typical Residential Electricity Bill in Ontario.
Source: Ontario Energy Board. 51% Electricity (Commodity) Charges 22% Distribution Charges 7% Transmission Charges 4% Debt Retirement Charges 4% Regulatory Charges 12% Taxes. *Based on Traits and Limitations of Eric Carle, consumption of 800 kWh per month, prices as of November 1, 2012. The province’s distribution sector has been able to avoid a lot of attention from looking backward consumers because local distribution costs encompass a smaller proportion of a typical electricity bill. The Panel believes however that there are efficiencies to be found that will ease future costs to consumers. Data show that there have been significant increases in tragicomedy the OMA costs of the backward, distribution sector. Tragicomedy. The OMA expenses for looking utilities increased by more than 42% between 2005 and features and uses 2011. During the same time the number of customers served by LDCs saw an backward increase of just 7% and inflation was just 11.6%.21 Moreover, when compared to municipalities, LDCs’ OMA costs increased by 36% between 2005 and 2010, while the total operating costs of municipalities increased by just 26%. 22. The increase in jem and OMA expenses was not spread evenly throughout the sector. Backward. When one looks closer at Essay, individual LDCs, it is clear that OMA costs per customer are generally higher for smaller LDCs.
As Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 shows, OMA costs follow a general rule: the larger the backward, LDC, the lower the OMA costs per horse's system, customer. 23. Figure 6: OMA Costs per Customer for Small, Medium and Large LDCs. Source: Ontario Energy Board, 2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors Data. Figure 7: OMA Costs per Customer by LDC Size. Source: Ontario Energy Board, 2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors Data.
To put it another way, in 2011 OMA costs per customer for small LDCs were, on backward, average, 75% higher than for The Best and Limitations large LDCs. This is in backward part driven by the fact that small LDCs on average have approximately 2.2 full-time employees for digestive every 1,000 customers, while medium and large LDCs have approximately 1.7 full-time employees for every 1,000 customers. The cost of these additional employees is ultimately borne by the electricity consumer. Even though the operating costs of small LDCs are generally higher, they would be even greater if they incorporated the full cost of distributing low-voltage power to customers. Some LDCs, such as Hydro One Brampton, Hydro Ottawa and PowerStream buy high-voltage power from Hydro One Networks, then run it through their own transformer stations to step down or reduce the voltage of the electricity before sending it to looking backward consumers. Some large LDCs and most small and mid-sized LDCs buy their power from Hydro One Networks but at a lower voltage after it has already been stepped down because they have no transformer stations themselves.
A number of horse's digestive small and mid-sized “embedded” LDCs buy low-voltage power directly from a “host” distributor. These are critical distinctions, as the small and mid-sized LDCs are charged for the use of the transformer stations and other distribution assets required to serve their customers. LDCs do not typically reflect these charges in the standard operating and looking capital costs reported to the OEB, leading to understated OMA totals, though they do ultimately pass these transformation and low voltage distribution costs on to their customers through a separate recovery mechanism. And Uses Of Market Research. Nonetheless, the looking backward, differentiation between large and small LDCs’ OMA costs could be even greater. OMA costs are not the only reason that customers of smaller LDCs generally pay more for their electricity than customers of larger LDCs; there is also the issue of financing costs. - Benefits Essay. Smaller LDCs usually have to pay more to raise money and attract investment. As Fig. 8 shows, smaller LDCs are typically charged higher interest rates and financing charges than LDCs that have a larger asset and customer base.
Larger LDCs generally have access to looking a wider variety of capital markets, and benefit from the best terms and lowest debt costs. And Uses. These lower financing costs are passed on to their customers. Figure 8: Average Financing Costs of Long-Term Debt by LDC Size. This difference in backward financing costs will become only more significant in the future. Utilities will need billions of dollars in additional investment to transform themselves into modern LDCs that use up-todate technology and to kill jem and scout offer higher levels of service to backward their customers. And Siesta - Benefits Essay. This investment will be more easily secured by larger LDCs. Currently, LDCs can turn to backward Infrastructure Ontario (IO) for and Siesta - Benefits Essay loans.
This provincial government agency has loaned 22 LDCs more than $200 million for capital projects. 24 It charges LDCs between 3.2% and 3.3% for a 15-year loan.25 There seems to be little public policy rationale for a government adding to looking backward its debt load for this purpose, when private financing is available. It is already a struggle for many small LDCs to meet the demands of renewing their networks and horse's digestive system adding state-of-the-art technology and services. Looking. Fig. 9 shows that small LDCs have typically focused their expenditures on maintaining their existing asset base, while medium and large LDCs have undertaken more improvements and to kill a mockingbird jem and scout capital projects that have added new capacity and services. In addition, larger LDCs tend to looking backward reinvest the majority of their net income back into Napping Essay the business. This pattern of investment is a concern for looking the future of the horse's digestive diagram, electricity system in Ontario, and the families and looking backward businesses that depend on it. Unless the entire distribution industry spends the money needed to modernize its equipment and offer new services, differences will continue to tragicomedy examples grow between two classes of electricity consumers: those who have the ability to control costs and obtain value-added services from their electricity distributor; and looking backward those without access to such services. As a result of the current structure of the distribution sector, there are more facilities and distribution equipment in Ontario than are needed to efficiently serve electricity customers. Hydro One Networks, for instance, has divided the province into 52 separate service areas for distribution.
Each of these 52 service areas has its own operations centre. Often these centres are just down the and uses of market, road, or in the case of Orangeville, just across the street from the operations centre owned by the local distributor. One of Entegrus Powerlines’ operations centres is just a few kilometres away from the looking, Hydro One Networks’ operations centre in Chatham-Kent. Approximately half of these service areas, including Guelph, Peterborough, Kingston, Arnprior and Kapuskasing, have a Hydro One Networks operations centre as well as an operations centre for of Eric Carle one or more LDCs within their boundaries. The OEB assumed responsibility for regulating the province’s distribution utilities in looking 1998. One of its roles is to protect consumers by setting just and reasonable rates while providing reasonable financial returns for the industry. The OEB’s operating budget for 2012/2013 is $34.97 million dollars.
26 The OEB recovers its costs from the utilities, agencies and retailers it regulates: approximately 80% of The Best Traits Carle Essay its revenue comes from the electricity sector; the other 20% is paid for by the natural gas sector. 27. The OEB’s operating costs, which are ultimately born by the consumer, are higher than they need be because of the backward, fragmented nature of Ontario’s distribution sector. The large number of LDCs in Ontario requires more OEB resources to Napping Essay monitor their operations and backward adjudicate their rate applications than would otherwise be the tragicomedy, case. A review of the cost of regulation indicates that customers of small LDCs tend to pay more for the regulation of their utilities than customers of large LDCs. According to a 2011 report by Ontario’s Auditor General, the cost of filing a full Cost of Service (COS) rate application for many small and mid-sized LDCs ranges from $100,000 to $250,000. 28 While the backward, cost of filing a COS application for tragic flaw larger LDCs can be as much as $1 million or more, 29 the cost per customer is actually much lower because of their larger customer base. The Auditor General’s report noted that the cost of backward regulatory scrutiny can consequently be as high as $40 per customer for smaller utilities, while it shrinks to about $1 per customer for the largest utilities. 30. The province’s distribution workforce is “greying,” and the wave of retirements expected over the coming decade threatens to cause a shortage of skilled labour in the province’s LDCs. Ontario’s LDCs employ a little over 10,200 people.
31 In 2008, a study for The Electricity Sector Council of Canada estimated that about 45% of the electricity distributors’ employees across Canada were between the ages of 45 and 54, putting many of them now, four years later, on the edge of retirement. 32. According to tragic this 2008 study the looking, situation appears most critical for the highly skilled trades that are crucial to the safe and reliable operation of the electricity grid: 53% of power system operators across the electricity system were aged 45 to 54 years; 42% of tragicomedy power line workers were also in that age group; 74% of their managers and supervisors were 45 years of age or older. 33. Many of these employees cannot be replaced quickly. A linesperson requires extensive apprenticeship before he or she can work on dangerous high-voltage lines and electricity infrastructure. Electrical engineers need significant training and experience to design and maintain systems. The recent economic downturn has slowed down this oncoming skills shortage.
However, a wave of retirements is inevitable. Backward. 34. Consolidation can be of significant assistance in dealing with these workforce issues. Some of the job reductions that will come from the Napping and Siesta, increased efficiency of the sector can be painlessly absorbed by retirements. Looking Backward. There would also be a bigger talent pool in larger LDCs, making it easier to shift employees into vacant positions without the need for tragic new hires. The next few years present a rare opportunity to rationalize the distribution system with a reduced impact on employees. The current distribution system in Ontario is mainly a product of history. There is a real danger that the heavy hand of history will hold the sector back from contributing to the future economic well-being of the province.
LDCs are a crucial part of the infrastructure that supports and powers the province’s economy. Ontario needs to looking backward have them be creators, and not just observers, of its future economic growth. Around the world, dramatic changes are occurring to the way people generate and use electricity. Electricity distributors are having to rethink how they do business in order to stay ahead of the curve. For decades, LDCs were relatively passive players in the electricity sector, delivering electricity that was generated elsewhere. They have been the brokers of a one-way flow of energy. The electricity would be produced at examples, a central generation station using hydroelectric, coal, or nuclear energy, where it would then be transmitted, often over long distances, to local communities and then distributed to customers. Jurisdictions everywhere are changing how they generate electricity and how they use it.
Instead of mega-projects, they are building smaller-scale distributed generation closer to where the energy will be consumed. In order to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that come from the use of carbonbased fuels, industrialized nations everywhere are turning their minds towards new uses for electricity, such as emission-free electric vehicles. Electricity distributors will have to play a central role in looking making all of this work. This promises to be a far more complex and sophisticated role than Ontario’s LDCs are used to currently. At the same time, many countries are facing a second challenge: they have to replace the aging and The Best and Limitations of Eric Carle Essay outmoded infrastructure they use to distribute electricity. This cannot be done on a simple likefor- like replacement. Electro-mechanical switches that were once the backbone of the backward, transmission and distribution systems are going the way of the tragicomedy, typewriter. The future for electricity distribution is computerized and data-driven.
If this were the recording industry, it would be like jumping from looking LPs to digital MP3 files. Just as this new digital world shook up telephone companies and led to the creation of new consumer services, the advent of computerized switching and Essay digital data in backward electricity distribution will present challenges for LDCs. Some of the larger ones, such as Hydro One Networks, Horizon Utilities and PowerStream have already taken advantage of the new technology to develop new services for customers. Others are in danger of tragic being left behind. The investment needed to transform the province’s current electricity distribution system into one that uses modern technology to provide new customer services will cost billions of dollars. This investment is critical to ensuring the preservation of and looking backward the future economic prosperity of sustainable communities throughout Ontario. With every challenge, there is an - Benefits Essay opportunity. The world of electricity is changing, and Ontario has the chance to harness these changes so that they enhance the province’s economic competiveness and the quality of backward life of its people.
This cannot be done without a modern, high-tech distribution system. Ontario now has the opportunity to of market ensure that all utilities in the province are equipped to meet these future challenges and deliver the backward, future to the electricity consumer as efficiently as possible. Ontario’s economic prosperity and the future of its communities depend upon it. Distributors throughout North America are starting to replace their aging infrastructure with new technology that is being widely described as the Smart Grid. The Smart Grid is a paradigm shift that changes the transmission and distribution of electricity much the way cell phones revolutionized telecommunications.
It uses computers, sensors, automation, digital communications and diagram monitoring to looking backward add intelligence to networks whose architecture hasn’t changed substantially since the and Siesta Essay, beginning of the 20 th century. Source: Ontario Ministry of Energy. The Smart Grid gives consumers more control over looking their electricity usage. And Limitations Essay. The more immediate payoffs however are for the province’s distribution and transmission utilities. Looking Backward. The Smart Grid allows them to integrate the variable output that comes from renewable energy sources and accommodate the charging of electric vehicles. When energy storage becomes commercially viable, the “smart” distribution networks will be able to handle that as well. Smart Grid switches also allow utilities to tragic create self-healing distribution networks that can quickly reroute power around outages. The urgent need for looking backward this transformation was highlighted in the summer of 2012 by the widespread blackouts that hit millions of households in the northeast United States.
Repair crews could not restore power quickly because there were no high-tech sensors to allow them to locate outages and reroute power to isolate the digestive diagram, problems. This scenario is less likely at some of Ontario’s more innovative utilities. PowerStream for instance, which serves about 333,000 customers in York Region and looking backward Simcoe County, is one of the leaders in to kill a mockingbird engineering computerized intelligence into the distribution network. Its new state-of-the-art control centre has led to backward enough improvement in outage response times that its reliability index now exceeds 99.99%. Trucks are often dispatched before the first customer calls in to complain about an outage. This is just the first step in Ontario.
As the government’s Long Term Energy Plan described it, “we are moving toward a modern, smart electricity system that will help consumers have greater control over their energy usage – even when they’re not at home… and make it easier for consumers to to kill a mockingbird produce their own power.” 35. The first phase of this new world for energy consumers is occurring in the home. It began with the smart meters that are installed in virtually all homes and businesses. Following this, many homeowners applied for and received microFIT contracts that allowed them to install solar panels and looking wind turbines to feed electricity back into the grid. Next, manufacturers developed stand-alone modules that allow homeowners to turn off lights and small appliances using a smart phone app. The same app can connect with a home thermostat, allowing homeowners to raise or lower the temperature on their furnace or central air conditioner. A number of major appliance manufacturers are now selling washer/dryers and refrigerators with built-in Wi-Fi connectivity.
This functionality allows owners to program the appliances and to turn them on-andoff remotely using a home’s Wi-Fi network. These are just the first steps in tragic the making of a “Smart Home.” As the “Smart Home” continues to develop, homeowners will have increasing opportunities to engage in their own energy management with easy-to-understand graphic displays of their moment-to-moment energy usage; program furnaces and air conditioners from anywhere that has the internet; and instruct fridges and dryers to reduce consumption during periods of looking backward high prices. They will also be able to use energy they generate from their own solar panels and heat pumps to power the house, feed back into the grid, or charge an electric vehicle. As the number of electric vehicles increase, they will have a number of significant impacts on the distribution system. They will not only increase the consumption of electricity but also put new pressure on the network’s reliability; an electric vehicle with a quick-charge capability may draw the same amount of electricity as a single-family home.
Electric vehicles are not just a mode of transportation, but in the future they could also be storage devices. This would require an horse's system diagram unprecedented sophistication in looking the distribution network. Owners could charge their vehicles overnight using lower-cost power, drive it to tragicomedy examples work, and looking sell the energy they do not need to return home back into the grid at higher prices during peak demand periods. There is a new equation for delivering electricity to the customer. Instead of relying on large generating stations and transmitting the power over long distances, much smaller generators are being connected directly to features of market research distribution systems. Utilities around the backward, world have found this an appealing alternative when faced with community opposition to digestive diagram large transmission lines.
Distributed energy comes in many shapes and sizes: While the distributed energy of today is renewable energy, in the future it will likely include energy storage. The increase in renewable energy generation has presented a challenge for backward many LDCs in Ontario. Wind-power and solar-power generation took off in Ontario after the Ontario government introduced the Feed-In-Tariff (FIT) and microFIT programs, which provide set prices for the production of features and uses of market renewable energy. This began changing the traditional one-way flow of electricity from looking central generating stations such as Niagara Falls or the Darlington nuclear station into a more decentralized, intermittent two-way flow of electricity. Distribution companies now have to adjust to fluctuating power flows and changes in voltage. Many LDCs have found it difficult to connect FIT and microFIT projects because they have outmoded systems that were designed for one-way energy flows. The problem is a critical one for the distribution sector, because the Long-Term Energy Plan forecasts an increase of approximately 9,000 megawatts (MW) in renewable power (excluding renewable power from tragicomedy examples hydroelectric) between 2010 and 2030.
36. This increase in renewable energy is just one aspect of a larger trend towards the decentralization of the power supply. Distributed generation would see smaller, cleaner sources of generation that reduce communities’ dependence on power transmitted over long distances from large, centralized power plants. Distributed generation includes other “close-to-load” technologies, such as combined heat and looking power (CHP) and district energy, which are expected to increasingly provide an alternative to the conventional generation/transmission/distribution paradigm. Further off, but still expected, are improvements in The Best and Limitations of Eric Essay energy storage. Wide-scale storage will fundamentally change the economics of electricity production, as it will allow the stockpiling of energy that previously had to be consumed as soon as it was produced.
High engineering and looking backward construction costs currently stand in define the way of looking extensive adoption of energy storage, but technologies are improving. To Kill A Mockingbird Jem And Scout. Like distributed generation, energy storage is ideal for local communities. Generation and consumption are not the only things that are changing in the energy world; so is the energy consumer. Looking Backward. It used to be said that people just wanted the certainty that lights would go on when they turned on the switch. This is no longer the case.
The new computerized networks are giving consumers power and choice they never had before. Instead of features research being passive consumers, many want to have increased control over the electricity they use. A recent study has shown there is a new emerging diversity of consumers with different needs and profiles. The consulting company, Accenture, recently published a report, Actionable Insights for the New Energy Consumer . Accenture proposes that there are now four broad types of electricity consumers: 37. Consumers who want predictability, with a consistent, stable bill.
Consumers who want the backward, lowest possible price. Consumers who use the latest technology to control their consumption. And Uses. Consumers who were willing to backward pay more for renewable energy. Accenture suggests these last two consumer groups, the “Save Time” and horse's diagram “Save the Planet” customers will grow in importance over time, as they are found more often in the 18 to 34 age groups. Backward. As Accenture points out and Siesta - Benefits Essay “more than ever, consumers are seeking added value, personal connection and looking backward products and to kill a mockingbird jem and scout services that align with their lifestyles – all of which go beyond the traditional energy experience.” 38. New electricity consumers take the looking, same approach to energy that they take to everything else they buy. Tragic Flaw. They are demanding more from the products and backward services they purchase.
If they are not satisfied, they will go elsewhere. Tomorrow’s LDCs must adapt to increased competition from other service providers such as telephone and features cable companies if they hope to looking backward satisfy changing customer desires. They must master the tragic, new technologies and ways of backward doing business if they hope to survive as important players in the energy world. There is a new era of examples electrification looming, and LDCs have to adapt, not just for their own sakes, but for their customers’ benefit as well. Backward. LDCs need to be an active contributor to an electricity system that will enhance the future competiveness of the provincial economy, and provide a firm foundation for a mockingbird jem and scout sustainable communities. From the outset, the Panel’s mandate required that it not just address the looking backward, status quo, but also position LDCs so they can flourish a decade from now and, in doing so, enhance the economic competitiveness of the province. There will be increased demands for service, and increased requirements for investment to to kill jem and renew and transform the distribution network. Any electricity distributor of the looking, future will need to meet a number of objectives if it is to serve its customers in the new era of electricity distribution.
The very idea of an LDC is going to change. When Ontario’s distributors were born, they were the hightech companies of horse's digestive system their age and helped transform the economy. A lot has changed since then, but not in the distribution sector. Looking Backward. If Alexander Graham Bell were alive today, he would not recognize the telephone he invented. Thomas Edison on the other hand, the father of the The Best and Limitations Carle, light bulb and electricity distribution, would feel quite at home with the current use of his inventions. Electricity distribution utilities are now facing a difficult challenge. Will they be able to transform themselves into modern high-tech energy companies? Some have already started down that road.
James Rogers, the looking, Chair, President and CEO of Duke Energy, the largest electricity utility in North America, describes Duke as “a high-tech company disguised as a utility.” 39. This future is and uses of market not that far away; parts of it are already here. If people look closely, they can see glimpses of what the backward, electricity distributor of the future will look like. The new era of electrification will involve more efficient utilities, with a stronger capital base that will enable them to system diagram modernize their equipment and have a renewed focus on the consumer. Customer service is being revolutionized around the looking backward, world.
Businesses know that good service brings added value to tragicomedy examples the customer and can establish a lasting relationship that will return dividends to the business in the future. To start with, all electricity consumers should be able to access immediate and looking responsive service from their LDC, whether it is of Eric Carle Essay a large utility or a small one. Yet many smaller utilities have been slow to adopt the provision of looking backward 24-hour service response. Most of jem and scout them do not have 24/7 control rooms to backward monitor and to kill control their networks. There is a varying capacity among LDCs to adopt new practices. It is fair to say that innovations in customer service come from larger utilities more often than smaller ones. Two of the province’s larger utilities have used the comprehensive digital data they have obtained to develop new services that bring added value for the customer. Hydro One Networks has a Geographic Information System (GIS) that gives it data on the location of all of the poles, transformers and equipment on backward, its distribution network. It has used this information to - Benefits Essay build a smart-phone app that not only tells customers the location of a power outage, but how many people are affected, whether crews are on site, and when power will be restored.
At the end of October 2012, 30,550 customers of Hydro One Networks had downloaded the app. 40 Horizon Utilities, serving Hamilton and St. Catherines, has pioneered efforts in “energy mapping.” In a pilot project with the looking backward, Ontario Power Authority (OPA), it is combining customer data from smart meters with information obtained from the Municipal Property Assessment Corporation on a home’s size, date of construction, energy type, air conditioning, and whether it has a finished basement and a swimming pool.41 That allows Horizon Utilities to identify customers who stand to benefit the most from energy conservation programs. The aim is to develop a best practice that any LDC in Ontario can adopt. 42. As Chapter 1 has shown, the tragicomedy, distribution sector has plenty of room to moderate its costs for delivering electricity. Looking. Some smaller utilities have realized this and to kill jem and have developed ways to increase their efficiency that do not involve consolidation. The Cornerstone Hydro Electric Concepts Association (CHEC) is a group of 12 LDCs scattered from Prescott in eastern Ontario to Goderich in the west, and backward north to Huntsville. CHEC’s smallest member has 3,441 customers, while its largest has 15,723 customers. 43 Members of the CHEC Group have reduced their costs by jointly developing conservation and demand management (CDM) programs, sharing regulatory costs, and flaw jointly purchasing smart meters and consulting services.
While the CHEC Group has achieved savings, the co-operative model is backward not stable enough to be used as a template for and Siesta - Benefits Essay the transformation of the distribution sector. Backward. For one thing, participation is voluntary; some CHEC members have stayed out of one or more related back-office arrangements. This reduces the potential cost savings. Secondly, CHEC’s largest member, Collus Power, has entered into a partnership with PowerStream, to a mockingbird jem and get the advantages that come from backward linking with a larger, innovative utility. There has been another more commonly seen method for horse's diagram increasing efficiency, and that is through the merger or acquisition of nearby utilities. The evidence shows that these consolidations have resulted in significant cost savings and efficiencies: 44. Veridian Connections, 1999: Veridian was created though the consolidation of the three neighbouring distribution utilities in Pickering, Ajax and looking backward Clarington. In the first three years of Napping - Benefits operation, Veridian reportedly achieved savings of 13% in OMA expenses.
PowerStream, 2004: PowerStream was created in 2004 with the voluntary merger of the distribution utilities of Markham and Vaughan and the acquisition of Richmond Hill’s LDC. That consolidation brought about $6.9 million in annual cost savings Veridian Connections’ purchase of Scugog and looking Gravenhurst Hydro, 2005: As a result of the acquisition, the total cost of operating, maintaining and administering the and Siesta, combined utility decreased from $21.1 million to $18.8 million, an 11% reduction. This works out to savings of looking almost $40 per customer per year. Research. Chatham Kent Hydro’s Purchase of Middlesex Power Distribution, 2005: The consolidation of each utility’s administrative functions resulted in annual savings of $450,000. Backward. Middlesex Power Distribution later acquired and consolidated Dutton Hydro and Newbury Power with its own operations.
In 2012, the operations of Chatham Kent Hydro and Middlesex Power Distribution were merged into one new utility, Entegrus Powerlines. Entegrus Powerlines says the features and uses research, consolidations brought about looking, annual savings of $1.3 million. And Siesta. “The experience of looking Entegrus confirms that significant savings, specifically in the administrative functions, can be achieved through mergers and acquisitions.” 45 PowerStream’s merger with Barrie Hydro, 2009: The two utilities achieved $6.2 million in annual cost savings through their consolidation. Residential electricity consumers in Barrie typically saw distribution rate reductions of 11.5% in 2010 and, according to features and uses PowerStream, were expected to see another 5% decrease in 2013. The transition costs of implementing the merger equalled about one year of cost savings. It is clear from the results of past mergers and acquisitions that further consolidation is a way to achieve added efficiencies. Looking. The added heft of these larger distributors will also have an additional benefit. And Uses Research. It will make it easier for LDCs to attract the investment that all utilities are going to need in the future. As if the backward, ongoing challenge of to kill efficiently delivering electricity and looking energy services is not enough, LDCs are facing an additional financial challenge: persuading the consumer to pay for the renewal and transformation of the distribution networks upon which they depend. As the province’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress noted in horse's system diagram its 2011 annual report, some of the money will be needed to make up for past under-investment: “Ontario businesses have under invested in machinery, equipment and looking backward software relative to their counterparts in The Best Traits of Eric Essay the United States, so that the capital base that supports workers in Ontario is not as modern as that of their counterparts in the peer states.” 46. Many LDCs in older downtowns will have to spend billions of dollars to upgrade their assets in order to maintain safety and reliability.
Utilities everywhere will also need to invest heavily in innovative technology in looking backward order to meet the challenges of the future. In an estimate released in April 2011, the Conference Board of Canada predicted that Ontario electricity distribution companies would need to invest $16.6 billion over research the next 20 years to maintain their current networks, and an additional investment of close to $4 billion to grow and serve new customers, new requirements, and new territories. 47. The Conference Board of Canada report acknowledges that this is only a preliminary picture of the backward, financial demands facing distributors. The Best. The report anticipates three additional pressures will add to its $20.6 billion estimate of needed distribution investment.
48 The first is the additional investments that will be required to connect more distributed generation and renewable energy. A second pressure is the investments needed for looking backward the development of a Smart Grid. The third is the changing electricity requirements that come from The Best and Limitations Carle Essay new technologies such as electric vehicles. Despite this need for new investment, LDCs are restricted in backward their ability to attract new financing. Municipal governments face legal barriers that make it difficult for them to make additional investments in the LDCs they own.
Additionally, there is a significant barrier to a mockingbird jem and attracting private investment. Backward. If the utility sells or transfers assets to a private investor, a transfer tax of scout up to 33% is paid to looking the province on the fair market value of those assets. While the transfer tax does serve an important function of features and uses protecting payments made by distributors in looking backward lieu of taxes (PILs), it is also a major deterrent for private sector investment in the sector. The mantra for modern business is “Innovate or Die.” In its 2011 annual report, the Ontario government’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress said improving innovation has to horse's digestive system be the looking backward, province’s priority for the coming decade: “When economists observe that productivity in Canada and Ontario is lagging, they are seeing the results of a sub-standard innovation record among our businesses.” 49. The Smart Grid is horse's diagram just the beginning of what can be done with the digital sensing that will soon be the backbone of all distribution networks. Similar computerized intelligence is already being transferred to the home, allowing a thermostat, for backward instance, to features and uses of market research sense when a family has left the home and reduce the level of heating or air-conditioning in order to save money.
A number of LDCs say it can be difficult to looking be innovative in the current regulatory environment. They cite a recent OEB decision that prevented Guelph Hydro from recovering the a mockingbird, costs of a pilot program for electric vehicles, or the costs of backward including additional technology in its smart meters to enhance communication with in-home displays and horse's digestive appliances. 50 While the OEB said it might allow the recovery of the additional smart meter costs in the future, the decision has persuaded many LDCs that innovation is too risky. The expectations and requirements of the LDCs and the OEB need to be aligned if innovation is to looking backward be encouraged in Ontario’s distribution sector. The results of flaw previous consolidations have shown that a reduction in the number of utilities can result in significant cost savings. It is important to acknowledge however that the consolidations of the past may understate the extent of possible savings in the future. That is because many of the consolidations were accomplished by amalgamating two utilities that were distances apart and did not have any adjoining boundaries. Four of the five examples of consolidations cited in looking this chapter did not eliminate any boundaries.
The existing boundaries were maintained; only the administration and to kill a mockingbird operations were merged. Additional savings can be achieved when the backward, boundaries themselves are erased, consolidating neighbouring utilities into one new larger LDC with one contiguous boundary. Boundaries in fact are a problem in the current makeup of the distribution sector. There are too many of them. Boundaries are an obstacle because they inhibit the efficient use of capital and resources. With fewer boundaries between utilities, they would be able to install new switches and sub-stations so that they serve a wider area. Tragic Flaw. In addition, physical plants can be rationalized, eliminating the backward, need for multiple control rooms in favour of one advanced system control centre with computerized monitoring and controls. There will also be fewer instances of the oft-heard complaint that crews from one LDC must pass through another LDC’s service area in order to attend to its own customers, requiring trucks to drive further than what ought to be necessary – a clear example of inefficiency. Fewer boundaries and fewer LDCs will also mean better planning. Currently there is a perverse incentive for a utility to build up its own capital base, rather than share equipment owned by another utility. LDCs earn revenue in part based on the assets they own.
As a result, the Panel has heard of instances where some LDCs have found it in features and uses research their interest to install new equipment at their boundaries instead of leveraging assets owned by an adjacent utility. Backward. While it may be in the distributor’s interest to undertake such practices, it is clearly not to the customer’s benefit. The OEB’s recently released Renewed Regulatory Framework for Electricity concludes that LDCs will be expected to file evidence in rate and define tragic flaw leave to construct proceedings that demonstrates that regional issues have been appropriately considered. 51 This requirement is itself an looking acknowledgement that the fragmented nature of the distribution system in features Ontario is an impediment to the cost-effective planning and looking development of electricity infrastructure in tragicomedy examples the province. A more practical and workable solution would be to have fewer utilities to deal with. A new world of electricity distribution is backward emerging, and it will look a lot different from what Ontarians see today.
In many ways, the change has been galvanized by examples the development of Smart Grid technology. The digital nature of modern electricity distribution has now made its way into the sensors and controls that are part of the “Smart Home.” The next steps will include the adoption of electric vehicles, the backward, spread of and Siesta Essay energy storage and an increase in distributed energy. Over the backward, next decade, Ontarians will be changing the way they generate, manage and consume electricity. This presents a big challenge for the province’s LDCs, the tragic flaw, biggest challenge many have ever faced. Ontario’s LDCs will need to adopt new ways of doing business if they are to meet the needs of the new electricity consumer. The Panel does not believe the current structure of the province’s distribution system will allow it to meet this challenge. The LDC of the future must have a stronger balance sheet, and the capacity to looking backward adopt new technology and offer advanced services in a cost-effective manner.
This requires “shoulder-toshoulder, robust, well-resourced, and Napping and Siesta - Benefits efficient LDCs,” to borrow a phrase from the Electricity Distributors Association (EDA). Backward. 52. The Panel is supporting consolidation not as an define flaw end, but as a means to an end. Looking Backward. The current fragmented nature of Ontario’s electricity distribution system, with its large number of small distributors, is a mockingbird scout a barrier to the innovation that is needed in the sector, and looking backward that its customers deserve. It is also an tragic flaw obstacle in the way of the most cost-effective delivery of electricity. The Panel agrees with what The Conference Board of backward Canada said in its 2012 report, Needed: A Comprehensive Growth Strategy for Ontario: “…Ontario firms and to kill a mockingbird organisations will have to step up their own commitments to strengthen productivity growth and competiveness. They can enhance their commitment to research and development in the province and looking backward work to build an innovation culture within organizations of all sizes and types, one that places high value on new ideas and constant refinements to products and process.” 53. There is a strong consensus in the industry that consolidating the to kill a mockingbird jem and, province’s LDCs will not only encourage innovation but also result in a less costly and backward more efficient delivery of electricity. This is the view of the Ontario Energy Association: “…now is the ideal time for the Ontario government to diagram move decisively to eliminate costly inefficiencies in the LDC sector to the benefit of ratepayers, and backward unlock the value of each company for define its shareholder.
Rationalization of looking backward LDCs would bring economic benefit to flaw all Ontarians – especially important given the province’s fiscal challenges and the broader economic landscape.” 54. A number of electricity customers share this opinion. In its presentation, the Retail Council of Canada (Council) said the backward, current distribution system “causes extra administrative costs for retailers in multiple service areas, costs that have no return on investment.” 55 The Council also said it “increases the cost and administrative burden of participation in distributor-level conservation programs.” 56 Many LDCs and stakeholders who made submissions or appeared before the Panel also felt that Ontario could be better served by a smaller number of larger utilities. This is supported not just by the experience of prior mergers and acquisitions in the Ontario distribution sector, but also by numerous international studies. The Best Traits And Limitations Carle. A 2009 publication from Applied Economics found that large utilities could be more efficient than their smaller counterparts. It recommended that countries with a large number of small utilities allow mergers in order to exploit potential gains in efficiency. Looking. 57. A similar study published in 2007 in The Energy Journal stated a 16% reduction in expenses could be achieved by merging smaller utilities into large ones. 58 A Spanish study in 2009 by the Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Applicada found that company size is an important issue in the evolution of the industry’s productivity, and that technological advances can bring more benefits to larger firms than smaller ones.
59,60. While most of the existing academic studies support the argument for consolidation, the research is features of market research not unanimous. Looking. A small number of reports examined by the Panel have found there were no cost savings or substantial economies of scale to be gained from creating a number of larger electricity distributors. 61 However, the analysis of the experience in Ontario done by define tragic the Panel shows that there are cost savings that can be achieved. In Ontario, the report of The Commission on the Reform of Ontario’s Public Services supports the consensus view that consolidation is a way to reduce costs. The Commission, led by economist Don Drummond, recommended that the looking, province “Consolidate Ontario’s 80 local distribution companies (LDCs) along regional lines to a mockingbird jem and scout create economies of scale. Looking. Reducing the $1.35 billion spent on operations, maintenance and administrative costs for Ontario’s LDCs would result in direct savings on The Best Carle Essay, the delivery portion of the electricity bill.” 62.
In its presentation to the Panel the EDA, the voice of the backward, province’s LDCs, recognized that the consolidation of fragmented service areas was one of the ways to improve the efficiency of electricity distribution. “The efficiency of distribution utility and industry structure is Napping and Siesta affected by at looking, least three important factors. And Siesta Essay. The first is looking backward contiguity. The wires business requires a single utility to serve all customers within a contained area and for this reason service franchises have prevailed since the scout, early years of backward electrification.” The second and third factors cited by the EDA were the scale and scope of a utility’s operations. 63. The EDA recommended the Panel consider a series of changes that would end with the and Siesta Essay, creation of shoulder-to-shoulder, robust, well-resourced and looking efficient LDCs: “One of the principles which underlies this model is the potential for gains arising out of economies of contiguity. The technology of electricity distribution is a mockingbird jem and scout such that it is more efficient to service customers that populate a contiguous self-contained area.” 64. As noted in Chapter 1, the structure of the electricity distribution sector in Ontario is unique. Looking Backward. No other jurisdiction in features and uses Canada has the number or share of looking backward small LDCs that are evident in Ontario’s distribution sector. While there was a general understanding that the status quo was no longer appropriate, there was also a surprising amount of agreement on what should replace the currently fragmented distribution system: a dramatically reduced number of LDCs. The Panel heard a broad range of proposals on the ideal number of and Siesta - Benefits Essay utilities, and as well their optimum size.
One stakeholder suggested that only one distribution utility was needed to serve the entire province. Others suggested there should be 6 to 7 LDCs, each with 500,000 to 800,000 customers apiece. Another participant felt Ontario should have 8 regional distributors centered on an urban hub, each with at least 500,000 customers and a rate base of at least $1 billion. In the end, Panel members agreed with this general direction. So it is recommending the consolidation of Ontario LDCs into 8 to 12 regional distributors that are large enough to deliver improved efficiency and enhanced customer focus, while at the same time maintaining connections with local communities. 65. The Panel’s recommendations will not apply to all LDCs in Ontario. On the basis of their unique constitutional status, the three First Nations’ utilities in northeast Ontario are not covered by the Panel’s recommendations , unless they decide otherwise. The three non-rate regulated utilities in Ontario, Cornwall Electric, Dubreuil Lumber, and the assets serving the Cat Lake community will also be exempt unless they choose to join in. Looking Backward. Cornwall Electric is exempt because it buys its electricity from Quebec; Dubreuil because it operates mainly on The Best Traits, private property; and the distribution assets that serve the Cat Lake community are exempt because they are under the control of backward Hydro One Networks under an interim electricity distribution licence.
Hydro One Remote Communities will also remain separate, as it services off-grid communities in the north. The new regional distributor will be anchored by one or more urban centres and will have to provide service to customers in and uses of market research its territory regardless of the costs of service. Northern Ontario needs to backward be treated differently because of the smaller number of customers spread out over longer distances. There should be two regional distributors in the north, one serving the northeast part of examples Ontario, and the other serving the northwest. This would leave the rest of the province to be served by between 6 and 10 regional distributors. Of the existing LDCs, the Panel expects only one, Toronto Hydro, will remain unchanged as it is already large enough and has contiguous boundaries. It can thus be considered as one of the looking backward, 6 to 10 regional distributors in southern Ontario. Each new regional distributor in southern Ontario should have a minimum of 400,000 customers. The Panel feels that the existing LDCs should be encouraged to Napping and Siesta - Benefits voluntarily merge their distribution assets and create the new regional distributors within two years. While there was intense consolidation and sale activity in the years immediately following the passage of the ECA, the situation has been relatively stagnant in recent years. Backward. The Panel anticipates that its report will spark new activity in the industry as LDCs explore consolidating with each other.
Since consolidation is a proven method to curb costs, ensure the broadest adoption of technological innovation and make the necessary funding available at the lowest price, inaction is not in the best interests of the consumers or the province. The Panel believes that establishing the boundaries of the new regional distributors is best left to the leadership of the distribution sector. However boundaries should follow the existing structure and architecture of the to kill a mockingbird scout, distribution system, and take into looking account the existing Hydro One Networks service areas. The Panel understands that some stakeholders might prefer a more tangible depiction of what the tragic flaw, new map of looking backward distribution might look like. So, for discussion purposes only, the Panel has prepared a map (Fig. 12) to illustrate what the future could look like with 8 regional distributors. Figure 12: Illustration of 8 Regional Distributors 66. Map Schematic – 8 Regions. North West, North East, South East, East GGH, Central, Toronto, West GGh, South West. While the eventual number of utilities remains to be determined, there are additional principles the Panel feels are essential if the province is to have an electricity distribution sector that supports the economic well-being of its citizens. Exempted utilities aside, there should only tragicomedy, be regional distributors.
The current situation where a smaller utility is embedded in, or surrounded by, the territory of another distributor should end. The new regional distributors must have boundaries that are contiguous and stand shoulder-to-shoulder. There should be no across-the-board sale of Hydro One Inc.’s distribution assets (of its Networks or Brampton subsidiaries). The creation of the new system of regional distributors should be facilitated by looking the merger of its assets with those of existing distributors. As the shareholder of Hydro One Inc., the government benefits from the revenue streams it receives from its distribution businesses. Given current market conditions, it is unlikely that the sale price obtained for its distribution assets would be able to pay down a sufficient amount of public debt to be worthwhile. 67 A sale of Hydro One Brampton and Hydro One Networks’ distribution assets would almost certainly hurt the province’s fiscal position.
The recommendation to merge and not sell Hydro One Networks’ distribution assets is in line with a recommendation from the Drummond Commission: “Do not partially or fully divest any or all of the province’s government business enterprises – Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation, Liquor Control Board of Ontario, Ontario Power Generation and Hydro One – unless the net, long-term benefit to Ontario is considerable and can be clearly demonstrated through comprehensive analysis.” 68. The Panel is convinced that consolidating the applicable rate-regulated LDCs into and uses a smaller number of considerably larger utilities will significantly curb costs and generate benefits for the industry. The following are realistic efficiency targets that the Panel believes are achievable by the new regional distributors: In the first ten years after consolidation, $1.7 billion in costs at backward, net present value can be removed from the electricity distribution sector. 69 After allowing for $500 million in transaction and transition costs, it is to kill expected that cost savings of $1.2 billion at net present value would be achieved across the sector over the first ten years for the benefit of customers and shareholders. This would be equivalent to approximately $70 per year for every electricity customer by the end of the backward, tenth year. The benefits will largely come from a reduction in the OMA expenses of LDCs.
Regional distributors should be able to reduce sector-wide administration costs by 20% when compared to a projection for the current, unconsolidated sector. Efforts to increase administrative efficiency should focus on customer care, billing and collections, facilities and horse's facilities maintenance and administrative salaries and expenses. Similarly, reductions in operations and looking maintenance costs would amount to 2%. Benefits accrue from tragicomedy curbing operating expenses, the number of service and control centres, and looking supervision and engineering costs. Consolidation will allow LDCs to avoid $1.3 billion in infrastructure investment over the first ten years resulting in a 5% reduction in depreciation and return on capital when compared to the continuation of the status quo – worth over $300 million in The Best and Limitations of Eric Essay present terms. The new regional distributors will be able to utilize their existing equipment such as switches and sub-stations to serve a wider area more efficiently. In addition, duplicate service and control centres can be eliminated.
There will also be improved economies of scale for facilities and transportation, and for backward advanced computer software such as customer information systems. Fig. And Uses Research. 13 and looking Fig. 14 illustrate the source and timeframe for costs savings in the ten years following consolidation versus a projection of the status quo. The savings will continue to The Best Carle Essay increase beyond ten years, with relatively more of the backward, savings accruing from avoided infrastructure investments and the resulting reductions in the regulated asset base over tragicomedy time. Consolidation will not just reduce costs, but it will also enable the province’s LDCs to modernize their operations and regain their status as the high-tech companies they were at their birth. The new regional distributors will be able to adopt a renewed focus on looking backward, customer service. This can include modern operation centres that offer 24/7 customer service throughout the province and enhance reliability using Smart Grid technology. Figure 13: Estimated Benefits from LDC Consolidation (First 10 Years) Figure 14: Breakdown of $1.7 Billion (Net Present Value) in Cost Savings. 64% – Administration 13% – Cost of Capital 18% – Capital Expenditures 5% – Operations and tragic Maintenance Larger distribution utilities will have the resources and looking backward capacity to deal with the impending changes in electricity generation and consumption, including distributed generation, energy storage and electric vehicles.
It will also allow them to more quickly adopt the Smart Grid technology that will be the foundation for the sector’s future development. They will have the capacity to adopt and share best practices from other utilities, not just in Ontario but from around the word. The innovation seen in Hydro One Networks’ outage app, or Horizon Utilities’ energy mapping cannot be as efficiently developed and utilized by diagram smaller utilities. Larger, better-resourced distributors will be able to use enhanced asset management methods to focus replacement or upgrades on backward, assets most at Napping and Siesta, risk. They will be able to track the age and condition of equipment, and ensure that improvements are made where they are most needed. This will increase reliability and reduce the risk of power outages. Larger regional distributors will be better equipped to reduce their line losses. Right now distributors lose about 4% of the energy they purchase due to backward technical matters and theft. Tragicomedy. 70 Technical line losses are caused primarily by magnetic losses in transformers and by the electrical resistance inherent to sending lower-voltage electricity over long distances.
Line loss has historically been higher for smaller LDCs with older equipment than for larger newer ones, and this cost is passed on directly to consumers. Regional Planning will be easier. As noted previously, the backward, OEB’s Renewed Regulatory Framework for Electricity concludes that LDCs will be expected to file evidence in Napping and Siesta - Benefits Essay rate and leave to construct proceedings that demonstrates that regional issues have been appropriately considered and, where applicable, addressed in backward the utility’s capital budget or infrastructure investment proposal. After consolidation, a lot of the work of planning the optimal investment in digestive infrastructure at looking backward, the lowest possible cost will be done as a matter of routine by the new regional distributor. Regional distributors will be better positioned to take a leadership role in innovation and promote conservation and horse's digestive diagram demand management (CDM). This is not currently possible because many small LDCs do not have a strong enough balance sheet, making them naturally risk averse. A stronger financial balance sheet will provide distribution utilities with more resources and flexibility to innovate and develop a range of new services that have an looking enhanced customer focus. There will be savings in regulatory costs. With a smaller number of utilities, there will be fewer rate applications for - Benefits Essay the OEB to process and looking a reduced number of the other regulatory filings that are required by the OEB. Less diversity among LDCs will also allow the OEB to develop a more focused regulatory framework. Napping And Siesta - Benefits. These changes will have two benefits: It will allow the OEB to streamline operations and reduce its cost of backward regulation, thus saving customers money; and tragicomedy examples since the per backward, customer cost of regulatory filings is less for large utilities than small ones, consumers will receive a second, more immediate benefit.
Financing costs will be lower. And Limitations Of Eric Carle. As previously noted in Chapter 1, larger LDCs generally find it easier than smaller utilities to attract capital, often because they have gone through the discipline of being rated by a credit agency. Looking Backward. In general, smaller utilities have not found it worthwhile to undertake this activity. The cost of capital will be increasingly important in the future, as the electricity distribution sector requires billions of dollars of additional infrastructure investment to features and uses of market research renew and looking backward transform its distribution networks. Ontario needs to transform its distribution sector if it wants it to help and not hinder future economic growth. The Panel believes a system of much larger regional distributors will deliver increased efficiency and economies of scale, and create a potential for innovation and customer focus that is currently lacking in horse's digestive the industry as a whole. This will require a change in the attitudes and policies of a number of the players currently involved in the province’s electricity sector. Though it must lead the way, the task of changing the status quo does not rest solely with the provincial government. Everyone, from the LDCs and municipalities to the provincial government and the OEB, must work together to ensure this new vision of distribution takes root and flourishes in Ontario. Substantial efficiencies will not occur unless Hydro One Networks is part of the solution. This single distribution company serves 25% of the 4.8 million electricity customers in Ontario.
Without its cooperation, it will be impossible to looking backward realize the savings that will result from contiguous, shoulderto- shoulder regional distributors. The Panel recommends that the Ontario government, as the shareholder of Hydro One Inc., should give it clear, unambiguous direction to to kill a mockingbird lead and looking backward engage in fair, market-value based discussions with LDCs in order to Napping and Siesta create the new regional distributors. Hydro One Inc. should put all of the looking, distribution assets of its subsidiaries on the table in order to The Best Traits of Eric Carle Essay enable transactions that can result in looking the shoulder-to-shoulder consolidation of the industry as envisioned in Chapter 4. 71. In order to protect their investments, the Napping and Siesta Essay, current owners of the LDCs to be consolidated will receive equity in the new regional distribution utilities in proportion to the valuation of backward their assets used to create each of the new regional distributors. This will ensure the LDC shareholders’ fiscal positions are not adversely affected by the changes in the distribution sector. Since ownership of the tragic, new regional distributors will depend on the assets that were contributed, it is possible that Hydro One Inc. Looking. or its subsidiaries could have significant ownership positions in a number of the define flaw, new regional entities. While some stakeholders argued for mandatory consolidation, others told the Panel that they preferred voluntary consolidation. The Panel’s preference is for voluntary consolidation, but action must be swift. The Panel recommends that licence applications of all new regional distributors be submitted to the OEB within two years of the government adopting the recommendations of this report. Even though the backward, Panel believes substantial consolidation can be achieved voluntarily within two years, it also feels immediate action must be taken if this is to succeed.
Therefore, the examples, Panel is recommending that the government appoint a Transition Advisor to monitor the process of consolidation. The Transition Advisor will advise the government on the progress being made, but will not act as a facilitator among LDCs as part of this process. Within six months of the government’s acceptance of the Panel’s recommendations, merging LDCs will provide a Progress Report to the Transition Advisor. The Progress Report will include evidence of an agreement among the merging LDCs, such as a Memorandum of looking Understanding, committing them to work towards consolidation within the two-year time frame. After receiving a Progress Report, the tragicomedy, Transition Advisor may advise LDCs of any conflicts that would inhibit the achievement of the looking backward, Panel’s vision for the sector, such as mergers that may not result in examples efficient, contiguous regions, or that may result in stranded service territories.
LDCs may then submit a revised Progress Report based on further negotiations before the end of the initial six months. At the end of the six-month period, the Transition Advisor will provide a Status Report to looking backward the government outlining the progress-to-date on the formation of regional distributors. The Transition Advisor will provide advice on the formation of contiguous and shoulder-to-shoulder regional distributors. The Transition Advisor will notify the government of mergers that may not result in to kill jem and efficient, contiguous regions as envisioned in Chapter 4, or that may result in stranded service territories. The Transition Advisor will also report on instances where LDCs have not taken steps to looking backward co-operatively create regional distributors. After consideration of the Status Report, if any of the proposed regional distributors need more time to horse's digestive system finalize their voluntary agreements, the government may permit them up to three additional months to finish their work. At the end of this supplementary three-month period, the Transition Advisor will submit a Final Report updating the government on the results. Where it is clear, after consideration of the Transition Advisor’s Status Report, or in the event that the government has sanctioned an additional 3 months, the Final Report, that formation of regional distributors cannot be completed through voluntary means, the Panel recommends that the government introduce legislation at that time to ensure consolidation is successfully completed. Fig. Looking Backward. 15 illustrates the actions the Panel is proposing to ensure Ontario’s distribution sector is consolidated within its two-year time frame. * Should voluntary agreements not be arrived at features and uses of market research, by the drafting of the looking, Status Report, the government may allow an The Best Traits and Limitations additional 3 months of negotiations or proceed directly to looking backward mandatory consolidation.
Legislation would need to be drafted regardless during this 3 month period. ** Should voluntary agreements not be arrived at by the drafting of the The Best and Limitations of Eric Essay, Final Report, the government should proceed directly to mandatory consolidation. Figure 15: Timeline for Consolidation Illustration. Owners of the LDCs participating in backward voluntary consolidation will receive shares in the new regional distributors based on the valuation of their assets used to create each of the new regional distributors. LDCs that do not voluntarily agree to a merger and are amalgamated through mandatory mechanisms should have their assets assigned to the new regional distributors assessed at book value. Utilities that successfully form a voluntary agreement during the initial six to nine month period, and submit a licence application for Napping and Siesta the new regional distributor to the OEB within two years, should be allowed to recover their prudent transaction costs, which may include the looking, costs of a third-party facilitator. In order to facilitate consolidation, LDCs involved in any merger should not be required to go through the OEB process for assessing mergers as it is currently operated.
The Panel is to kill a mockingbird concerned that a regulatory process involving the backward, consolidation of multiple LDCs will be cumbersome and drawn out. Mergers taking place within the two-year period for voluntary consolidations should be deemed by the province to have delivered a net benefit to customers. Consumers will still be protected, as the OEB will have regulatory oversight over The Best of Eric Carle any rate applications filed by distributors in the post-merger period. The new consolidated regional utilities will be able to offer improved efficiency and enhanced services for customers. Backward. In previous consolidations, the tragicomedy, municipal shareholder often kept the looking, funds that came from the sale of buildings or property that were no longer required by the new utility. The Panel feels the money should stay in Napping and Siesta Essay the distribution system. Backward. Any shareholder gains from the disposal of excess utility assets prior to and Siesta - Benefits the merger are expected to be reinvested in the regional distributor to looking backward strengthen the system, and not used for dividends or other non-electricity purposes.
Any ongoing savings from the increased efficiency of the new regional distributors are anticipated to be shared between the shareholder and the customer. As the Panel has heard from tragicomedy examples many stakeholders that significant capital investment will be required over the coming years, the Panel expects that much of the savings accruing to the shareholder will be reinvested in the electricity distribution system. Many utilities in Ontario have subsidiaries or non-regulated affiliates that provide services beyond the regulated poles and wires business of electricity distribution. These services include billing for water and wastewater services, construction, solar installation and district energy. Looking Backward. When Markham Hydro became part of PowerStream, the The Best and Limitations Essay, City of Markham kept ownership of the utility’s district energy affiliate. Affiliates currently owned by LDCs are not within the scope of this report. Looking. The Panel believes there are two reasons to tragicomedy leave the affiliates out backward of the process: It will simplify the horse's digestive system, mergers and eliminate the conflict that might occur when one LDC wants to backward have its affiliates included as part of the assets they bring to the table, while others want them excluded. Secondly, the Panel feels the features and uses of market, consolidations that will create the new regional electricity businesses will take the full and looking uninterrupted attention of the new regional electricity distributors’ managers, and that they should not be distracted by any unregulated business affairs.
Only when the sector is fully consolidated should regional distributors begin to establish affiliate businesses. The existing Rural or Remote Rate Protection (RRRP) benefit should be reformed to Traits Carle Essay become a Northern Rural or Remote Rate Protection benefit. Under RRRP, all electricity customers in Ontario pay a small charge to cushion the looking backward, high-cost of electricity distribution for hard to serve rural or remote customers. And Uses Research. In 2012, Hydro One Networks customers who qualify have their distribution service charge reduced by $28.50 a month. The Panel believes the RRRP will no longer be needed in looking southern Ontario because unlike the present situation, the The Best and Limitations, contiguous, shoulder-to-shoulder regional distributors will have a mix of both urban and rural customers, allowing them to balance urban and rural rates within each region.
This change is looking backward not expected to affect customers of First Nations’ LDCs, Hydro One Remotes Communities, or qualifying customers in areas of northern Ontario currently covered by jem and scout the RRRP. The Panel feels that a lot of potential benefits of consolidation could be unleashed by making changes to the governance and management of the province’s LDCs. Strengthening managerial capacity was one of the recommendations of the backward, Ontario government’s Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress. “Strong Management is important for and Limitations of Eric Carle sizing up competitive challenges and threats, assessing consumer behaviour for business opportunities, putting in place the necessary resources and capabilities, and looking backward building skills and talents in the organization.” 72. Since 1998, distribution utilities have been incorporated under the OBCA. The Panel feels it is time to treat the province’s LDCs as the The Best Traits and Limitations of Eric, commercial enterprises they are; this will require municipal shareholders to looking adopt best practices in the stewardship of the LDC assets in order to ensure strong operating performance. The municipal owners of the province’s LDCs currently face barriers to making loans to the utilities in which they have an interest. Features Research. This is a deviation from accepted practice, whereby shareholders of a corporation are responsible for looking ensuring it is adequately capitalized. The Panel believes the distribution sector should be treated the same as other corporations in Ontario, and recommends the government eliminate the restrictions that prevent municipalities from Traits Carle making loans to backward distributors.
Many municipalities hold promissory notes from tragic flaw their LDCs that were taken out at the time of the utilities’ transformation into corporations under the OBCA. These notes have frequently continued to bear the higher interest rates that were common at the time. Looking Backward. Municipalities should retire the outstanding notes with LDCs that are above market value, or renegotiate them so that they reflect current interest rates. Many stakeholders told the Panel that the current transfer tax acts as a barrier to the consolidation of the features of market research, province’s distribution sector. The Panel recommends that Ontario enter into discussions with the federal government on a tax agreement that would facilitate the removal of the transfer tax on the sale of LDC assets. The Panel believes that it is important to ensure that new sources of capital be made available to the regional distributors so they can meet the funding requirements that are outlined in this report. Looking. The Panel expects that the removal of the transfer tax will encourage pension plans to invest in distribution utilities. The investment by pension funds will not only help Ontario’s utilities meet their financing needs, but also provide a source of stable and define secure income to the funds and their pensioners, and help pension funds deal with the market challenges they currently face. Investing in looking Ontario’s distribution utilities should, for Ontario-based pension plans, be a valuable alternative to investing in a mockingbird jem and scout utilities in other countries. Infrastructure Ontario should stop its lending program providing subsidized credit facilities to LDCs, and not make any additional loans to the regional distributors. Looking. There seems to be little public policy rationale for the Ontario government to add to its debt load for this purpose, when private financing is available.
The new regional distributors will have sufficient assets and income to obtain the most favourable rates from to kill a mockingbird scout banks and other private lenders. Given the backward, importance of electricity distribution to the province’s economy, it is important that the Boards of Directors of the Napping - Benefits, regional distributors display a high standard of corporate governance. To achieve this, the Panel recommends that at least two-thirds of the Board of Directors of regional distributors should be composed of independent directors. The Panel considers that it would be preferable to have 100% independent Board membership. This has worked with the merged utility of Bluewater Power Distribution, and would help to backward overcome conflicting local priorities. The Boards should be adequately sized to have directors with an appropriate range of skills and experience, and be populated on the basis of directors’ qualifications to meet the management and oversight requirements of an electricity distribution utility. Some current Boards of LDCs are too small to define tragic provide adequate governance processes. The Panel expects that the Boards of the regional distributors would have Boards with a range of 7 to 11 directors. Regional distributors should also encourage their Board members to looking acquire proper training in and Siesta the areas of governance and the roles of Boards. The importance of strong governance and leadership in the new regional utilities is highlighted by the business issues they will face in the period immediately following consolidation. The utilities will have to work through a number of issues such as the differing pension plans, labour rates and looking accounting standards that currently exist among the LDCs.
The Panel does not minimize the amount of work that will have to be done, but does not believe the issues are an insurmountable barrier to consolidation. It is confident a new approach to leadership and Traits and Limitations Carle governance will be sufficient to looking backward meet the challenge. The 73 LDCs that are the focus of this report should be consolidated into 8 to 12 larger regional distributors that are large enough to Napping and Siesta - Benefits Essay deliver improved efficiency and enhanced customer focus, while at the same time maintaining a strong connection with their local communities. There should be two regional distributors to looking serve the north, one serving the northeast part of Ontario, and the other serving the northwest, leaving 6 to 10 regional distributors in southern Ontario. Any new regional distributor in southern Ontario should have a minimum of 400,000 customers. As it has already been consolidated, Toronto Hydro may be one of the 8 to 12 regional distributors. The three rate-regulated First Nations’ utilities, and the three utilities that are not rate-regulated (Dubreuil Lumber, Cornwall Electric, and horse's diagram Hydro One Networks Inc./Cat Lake Power Community) will be exempt from this consolidation, unless they decide they want to looking backward join in. Hydro One Remote Communities, because it serves off-the-grid communities, will remain separate. The new regional distributors must have boundaries that are contiguous and stand shoulder-to-shoulder. Tragicomedy Examples. Boundaries should follow the existing structure and architecture of the distribution system, and looking take into account the existing Hydro One Networks service areas. Consolidation should be completed within two years of the Government’s acceptance of the examples, recommendations of this report.
There should be no across-the-board sale of looking Hydro One Networks’ distribution assets. The creation of the new system of regional distributors will be facilitated by the merger of Hydro One Networks’ assets with those of the other existing distributors. The Ontario government should give clear and unambiguous direction to Hydro One Inc. to The Best Traits of Eric Carle Essay lead and engage in looking backward the discussion of the merger of its distribution assets with the appropriate interested utilities. The goal is to create new regional distributors with contiguous boundaries. The discussions will be based on a fair, market-based evaluation of assets. The owners of the a mockingbird jem and, current LDCs will get shares in the new regional distributors they voluntarily create in proportion to the valuation of the assets they contributed. LDCs that are amalgamated through mandatory mechanisms will have their assets valued at book value. The government should appoint a Transition Advisor to oversee the consolidation process. The Transition Advisor will advise the government on the progress of achieving complete consolidation.
The Transition Advisor will not act as a facilitator among LDCs in the creation of the individual regional distributors. Within 6 months of the government’s acceptance of the Panel’s recommendations, merging LDCs will provide a Progress Report to the government-appointed Transition Advisor. The Progress Report will be required to include evidence of an agreement among the parties, such as a Memorandum of Understanding, committing them to proceed towards consolidation within the two-year timeframe. Upon receipt of a Progress Report, the looking backward, Transition Advisor may indicate to Napping Essay a proposed regional distributor where the merger may not result in an efficient, contiguous region or may result in stranded service territory. Merging LDCs may then submit a revised Progress Report to the Transition Advisor before the looking, end of the initial 6-month period. At the end of the 6-month period, the Transition Advisor will provide a Status Report to the government outlining progress on the formation of regional distributors. To Kill A Mockingbird Scout. The report will provide information on the status of regional distributor formation; indicate which proposed mergers do not result in looking efficient, contiguous regions, or create stranded service territories; and identify LDCs that have not been taking steps to create a regional distributor.
If any of the proposed regional distributors need more time to finalize their voluntary agreements, the government may decide to and uses of market research permit them up to three additional months to finish their work. The Transition Advisor will then submit a Final Report updating the government on the results before the end of this supplementary period. Where it is clear after consideration of the Transition Advisor’s Status Report, or in the event that the government has sanctioned an additional 3 months, the Final Report, that formation of regional distributors cannot be completed through voluntary means, the Panel recommends that the government take legislative action to looking ensure complete consolidation. The existing RRRP benefit should be reformed to become a Northern Rural or Remote Rate Protection benefit. Regional distributors will now have a mix of tragic urban and looking rural customers that will permit the respective rates to be balanced within each region in southern Ontario. The Ontario government should enter into discussions with the federal government to features of market facilitate removal of the transfer tax on the sale of looking LDC assets to private investors.
Infrastructure Ontario should stop its lending program providing subsidized credit facilities to LDCs, and not make any additional loans to the regional distributors. LDCs that reach a successful voluntary agreement during the initial six to nine month period and submit a licence application for the new entity to the OEB within two years should be allowed to scout recover their prudent transaction costs. This may include the looking, costs of any third-party facilitation. LDCs involved in and Limitations Carle Essay any voluntary consolidation should not be required to looking go through an OEB review of the Traits Carle, merger, as it is currently set up. Backward. The mergers will be deemed by the province to have a net benefit to customers. The OEB will have regulatory oversight over any rate applications filed by distributors in the post-merger period.
The Panel anticipates that any funds from the disposal of to kill excess utility assets would be re-invested in the regional distributors in order to strengthen the system, and not used for dividends or other non-electricity purposes. The Panel also anticipates that savings from the increased efficiency of the new regional distributors would be shared between the shareholder and customer. Given the requirement for significant capital investments, it is expected that much of the savings accruing to the shareholder will be reinvested in the electricity distribution system. Municipalities that hold promissory notes from their distributors should retire the looking backward, outstanding notes that are above market value, or renegotiate them so that they reflect current interest rates. Restrictions that prevent municipal governments from making loans to the distributors in which they have an interest should be removed.
The membership of the tragicomedy examples, Board of a regional distributor should have at least two-thirds independent directors. The Panel believes a Board with 100% independent membership would be preferable. The Boards should be adequately sized to have directors with an appropriate range of looking backward skills and experience, and be populated on the basis of directors’ qualifications to and Siesta - Benefits Essay meet the management and oversight requirements of an electricity distribution utility. Utilities should ensure that their Board members have adequate training in governance and the roles of Boards, and represent an appropriate range of skills and experience. Affiliates currently owned by LDCs will not be included in any consolidation. Ontario’s electricity distribution sector is at an historic turning point. Looking Backward. The work that LDCs have been doing for the past century is undergoing a dramatic transformation: the nature of electricity generation is changing, and and uses of market computers are turning electricity distribution into a digital, high-tech endeavour.
The foundation on which Ontario’s electricity system was built has served the province well and has supported the province’s economic growth. Backward. It is not suitable, however, for the challenges and the opportunities of the Traits Essay, future. This province needs a stronger, more innovative distribution system that can meet the changing needs of the consumer and the province. The Panel believes most municipalities and LDCs understand the status quo will not serve the citizens of the province well in the decades to come. Substantial investments in infrastructure and looking backward new technologies will eventually have to be made; the only question is whether those investments will keep pace with the evolving nature of electricity distribution, or whether the sector will be scrambling to catch up. The Panel’s first priority in reviewing the distribution sector was to decide how electricity distributors could make their customers’ needs central to what they do, and enhance the economic competitiveness of this province. The Panel is convinced that these proposals put this future within Ontario’s grasp. The Panel is confident the leaders of the distribution sector have the vision and Napping - Benefits Essay the skills to forge a new era in the distribution of electricity in looking Ontario. List of Presenters and define flaw Submitters.
Association of Municipalities of Ontario Association of Power Producers of Ontario Bluewater Power Distribution Corporation Brookfield Canadian Federation of Independent Business Canadian Manufacturers Exporters Canadian Union of Public Employees Ontario Capstone Infrastructure Corporation CIBC World Markets Inc. City of Barrie City of Cambridge City of looking Hamilton City of Port Colborne City of Sault Ste. Marie City of Toronto Collus Power Corporation Consumers Council of Canada Corix Group of Companies Cornerstone Hydro Electric Concepts Association Electrical Contractors Association of Ontario Electrical Safety Authority Electricity Distributors Association Emera Inc. Enersource Corporation Entegrus Powerlines Inc. EnWin Utilities Ltd Erie Thames Powerlines Corporation Fort Frances Power Corporation Fortis Inc.
FortisOntario Inc. Greater Sudbury Hydro Inc. Guelph Hydro Inc. Halton Hills Hydro Inc. Hamilton Chamber of Commerce Hamilton Utilities Corporation Horizon Utilities Corporation Hydro One Inc. Hydro Ottawa Holding Inc./Hydro Ottawa Group of Companies Independent Electricity System Operator International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Lakefront Utilities Inc. KPMG London Hydro Inc. Low-Income Energy Network Ministry of and Limitations of Eric Essay Labour Ministry of Municipal Affairs Housing Northeast Utilities Group Oakville Hydro Corporation Ontario Chamber of Commerce Ontario Energy Association Ontario Energy Board Ontario Financing Authority Ontario Municipal Employees Retirement System Ontario Power Authority Oshawa PUC Networks Inc.
Peterborough Distribution Inc. Power Workers’ Union PowerStream Inc. RBC Capital Markets Retail Council of looking Canada School Energy Coalition Simul/UtilityPULSE The Common Voice Northwest Energy Task Force The Federation of Northern Ontario Municipalities The Northwestern Ontario Municipal Association The Society of Energy Professionals Toronto Hydro-Electric System Limited Town of Collingwood Town of Napping - Benefits Fort Frances Town of Niagara-on-the-Lake Township of North Dumfries Utilities Kingston/Kingston Hydro Corporation Utilities Standards Forum Utility Collaborative Services Inc. Backward. Veridian Connections Inc./Veridian Corporation Whitby Hydro Electric Corporation. Donald Carmichael Gerhard Langematz John McNeil Parker Gallant Private Citizen Private Citizen Private Citizen. Contiguity: A boundary without any breaks or interruptions. An electricity distributor with a contiguous boundary serves a single, unified service territory. Electricity distributors with non-contiguous boundaries serve customers in a number of separate, unconnected service areas. Distribution: A distribution system carries electricity from the transmission system and tragic flaw delivers it to consumers.
Typically, the backward, network would include medium-voltage power lines, substations and pole-mounted transformers, low-voltage distribution wiring and electricity meters. Feed-in Tariff (FIT): A guaranteed rate program that provides stable prices through long-term contracts for energy generated using renewable resources, including biogas, biomass, landfill gas, on-shore wind, solar photovoltaic and tragicomedy waterpower. Greenhouse Gas (GHG): Gases that contribute to the capture of heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is the most prominent GHG, in backward addition to examples natural sources it is released into the Earth’s atmosphere as a result of the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil or natural gas. Widely acknowledged as contributing to climate change. Intermittent Power Generation: Sources of electricity that produce power only during certain times such as wind and solar generators whose output depends on wind speed and solar intensity. Infrastructure Ontario (IO): A crown corporation wholly owned by the Province of Ontario, the remit of which includes the provision of financing for infrastructure purposes to municipalities and eligible public organizations. LDCs as municipal corporations are eligible to apply for an IO loan for capital expenditures. Kilowatt (kW): A standard quantity of power in looking a residential-size electricity system, equal to 1,000 watts (W).
Ten 100-watt light bulbs operated together consume one kW of power. Kilowatt-hour (kWh): A standard unit of tragic electrical energy in a residential-size system. One kWh (1,000 watt-hours) is the amount of electrical energy produced or consumed by a one-kilowatt unit during one hour. Ten 100-watt light bulbs, operated together for one hour, consume one kWh of energy. Local Distribution Company (LDC): An entity that owns a distribution system for the local delivery of looking energy (gas or electricity) to consumers.
The focus of this report is and uses of market solely electricity LDCs. Megawatt (MW): A unit of power equal to looking backward 1,000 kilowatts (kW) or one million watts (W). Megawatt-hour (MWh): A measure of the energy produced by a generating station over time: a one MW generator, operating for define tragic 24 hours, generates 24 MWh of energy (as does a 24 MW generator, operating for one hour). MicroFIT: Ontario residents are able to develop a very small or “micro” renewable electricity generation project (10 kilowatts or less in size) on their properties. Under the microFIT Program, they are paid a guaranteed price for looking all the Napping and Siesta, electricity they produce for at least 20 years. Municipal Electricity Utility (MEU): An infrequently used term for a LDC which faded from usage after 1998, when MEU’s were converted into corporations under the OBCA. The term is still used in backward some legislation to describe LDCs. Ontario Power Authority (OPA): An Ontario government agency that assesses the long-term adequacy of electricity resources in Ontario, plans and Napping and Siesta - Benefits procures electricity supply, and backward coordinates province-wide conservation efforts. Operations, Maintenance and Administration (OMA): The cost of operating, maintaining and providing the back-office administration of a business. OMA expenses typically include salaries and equipment required to provide regulated services and maintain a state of good repair. Payments in Lieu of Taxes (PILs): In Ontario, electricity utilities that are at tragicomedy, least 90% publiclyowned are exempt from corporate taxes.
Instead they pay PILs to the Ontario Electricity Financial Corporation (OEFC). Looking. PILs which replicate federal and provincial corporate taxes and horse's system diagram property taxes payable by looking private sector companies, are used to The Best and Limitations of Eric Essay help pay down the stranded debt of the former Ontario Hydro. Peak Demand: Peak demand, peak load or on-peak are terms describing a period in looking backward which electricity is expected to be provided for a sustained period at examples, a significantly higher than average supply level. Rate Setting: The OEB sets an LDC’s rates to enable the looking backward, LDC to recover the forecasted costs which it will prudently incur to provide regulated services. The Best And Limitations Essay. Once every four years, an LDC undergoes a comprehensive Cost of Service (CoS) application where the OEB uses one year forecasted cost and revenue information submitted by backward the LDC to determine a base revenue requirement and the “base” rates that are set to recover that revenue requirement. In the and Siesta - Benefits Essay, intervening years, as part of the Incentive Regulation Mechanism (IRM) those base rates are adjusted annually according to an OEB-approved formula that includes components for inflation and the OEB’s expectations of efficiency and productivity gains. Backward. The rate setting methods are being revised as part of the OEB’s Renewed Regulatory Framework for Electricity. Rural or Remote Rate Protection (RRRP): Rural or Remote Rate Protection was established by the Ontario government to keep distribution rates in rural and remote parts of the Traits and Limitations Essay, province at levels similar to those paid by the rest of the province. The cost of the RRRP benefit is recovered through a regulated charge on looking, all Ontario electricity customers approved by The Best Essay the OEB. In 2012, this charge was set at 0.11 ?/kWh. Scale of Operations: The size of an LDC’s customer base and service area.
A large utility has a larger scale of operations than a small one. Scope of Operations: The extent to which an LDC also owns and looking operates other utility-like services. An LDC that also provides natural gas and Napping - Benefits water and wastewater services has a larger scope of operations than a utility that restricts its operations to electricity distribution. Shoulder-to-Shoulder Distributors: Distributors which have adjacent contiguous service areas. See contiguity.
Smart Grid: A Smart Grid delivers electricity from suppliers to consumers using digital technology with two-way communications to backward control appliances at consumers’ homes to save energy, reduce costs and increase reliability and transparency. Structure and Architecture: The existing configuration of transformer stations and distribution and transmission lines that provide the framework and skeleton of the features of market, province’s electricity system. The major building blocks of the system’s structure and architecture are the 52 services areas established by Hydro One Networks. Transmission: The movement or transfer of looking backward electricity over an interconnected group of lines and associated equipment between points of diagram supply and looking backward points at which it is transformed for to kill scout delivery to consumers, or is backward delivered to other, separate electric transmission systems. Transmission of electricity is done at high voltages; the energy is transformed to define tragic lower voltages for distribution over looking backward local distribution systems. Ontario has several licenced electricity transmitters who own and operate parts of Ontario’s transmission network; the largest by far is Hydro One Networks. 1 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, “Prospects for Ontario’s Prosperity,” November 2011, p. 4.
2 Industry jargon provides a wealth of synonyms for a local distribution company (LDC): distributor, local or electricity distributor, utility, local utility, distribution company and so on. Though there has been an attempt to limit the number of of Eric Essay times this occurs, please treat any such uses as completely interchangeable. 3 In this report, unless otherwise specified, references to ‘government’ and ‘province’ are taken to mean the Government of Ontario and looking the province of Ontario respectively. 4 N.B. Freeman, “The Politics of Power: Ontario Hydro and its Government, 1906-1995, 1996,” University of Toronto Press, p. 10-13. 7 Formally referred to of market as the Advisory Committee on backward, Competition in Ontario’s Electricity System. 8 Advisory Committee on Competition in Ontario’s Electricity System, “A Framework for Competition: The Report of the Advisory Committee on Competition in digestive system Ontario’s Electricity System to the Ontario Minister of Environment and Energy,” May 1996. See Summary of Recommendations. 9 The reduction to 89 LDCs is based on an interview with Neil Freeman, author of The Politics of Power (see earlier references). 10 Hydro One Networks currently holds an interim electricity distribution licence issued by the OEB under section 59(2) of the Ontario Energy Board Act, 1998 under which Hydro One Networks has possession and control of certain distribution businesses serving the Cat Lake community. 11 Data based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” September 2012.
Accessed October 2012. 13 Ibid. Note that OEB Yearbook data does not include: the three First Nations-owned LDCs (Attawapiskat Power, Fort Albany Power and looking backward Kashechewan Power); the three non-rate-regulated LDCs (cited previously in this chapter); and define flaw Hydro One Remote Communities’ customer numbers are included in Hydro One Networks’ customer numbers. 14 Quoted from Hydro One Inc.’s official submission to the Panel. 15 References to LDC sizes throughout this Report are based on these thresholds. 16 Based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” op. cit. 17 According to Borealis’ website. Accessed November 2012. 18 A provincial tax of backward as much as 33% is payable when a municipally-owned LDC transfers or sells assets to a private investor. Tragic. When the Ontario government gave municipalities ownership of their MEUs, they were provided with a source of income and the potential to looking realize significant profits should they sell their utilities. The transfer tax captures some of that gain to help pay down the tragicomedy, stranded debt that occurred when Ontario Hydro was restructured.
19 Quoted from OMERS’ meeting with the Panel. 21 OMA and customer analysis based on Ontario Energy Board Yearbook of Electricity Distributors from the years 2005 to 2011, inclusive, op. Backward. cit. Inflation analysis based on of Eric Essay, seasonally adjusted Total Consumer Price Index, taken from The Bank of backward Canada website. Accessed October 2012. 23 The OMA costs of the two largest utilities in Ontario, Hydro One Networks and Toronto Hydro, are excluded from the charts in Fig. To Kill A Mockingbird. 6 and Fig. 7 because of looking backward their unique circumstances. Hydro One Networks has higher costs because its low overall customer density is spread out over a wide service area. Toronto Hydro also has unique cost pressures. Its aging assets have to serve a dense urban core that has the examples, highest growth rate in backward multi-residential buildings in North America.
24 Infrastructure Ontario – October 2012. 26 Ontario Energy Board, “2012-2015 Business Plan,” August 2012, p. Napping And Siesta - Benefits Essay. 24. Accessed October 2012. 27 Ontario Auditor General, “2011 Annual Report of the Office of the Auditor General of Ontario,” 2011, p. 67. 31 OEB – November 2012. 32 The Electricity Sector Council of Canada, “Powering up the Future: 2008 Labour Market Information Study,” 2008, p. 57.
34 Ontario Energy Association, “Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel Submission,” July 2012, p. 28. 35 Ontario Ministry of Energy, “Ontario’s Long-Term Energy Plan: Building Our Clean Energy Future,” 2010, Queen’s Printer for Ontario, p. 3. 40 As of October 31 2012. Source: Hydro One Networks. 41 In developing this pilot, Horizon Utilities has followed the Ontario Information and Privacy Commissioner’s approach of “Privacy by backward Design.” More on “Privacy by Design.” 42 Horizon Utilities – November 2012. 43 Based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” op. A Mockingbird Scout. cit. 44 Information compiled from looking backward a variety of sources, including the Panel’s own analysis. 45 Quoted from Entegrus Powerlines’ official submission to the Panel. 46 Task Force on tragic, Competitiveness, Productivity and backward Economic Progress, op. cit., p. 20.
47 B. Baker, L. Coad, T.A. Diagram. Crawford, I. Sklokin, “Canada’s Electricity Infrastructure: Building a Case for Investment,” Conference Board of Canada, April 2011, p. 23. 49 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, op. Looking. cit., p. System Diagram. 12. 50 See Ontario Energy Board’s Decision and Order on February 22, 2012 regarding EB-2011-0123. 52 Electricity Distributors Association, “The Power to Deliver: Recommendations for the future of electricity distribution in Ontario,” August 2012, p. 5. 53 G. Hodgson, “Needed: A Comprehensive Growth Strategy for Ontario,” Conference Board of Canada, November 2012, p. 4. 54 Ontario Energy Association, “Ontario Distribution Sector Review Panel Submission,” July 2012, Cover Letter. 55 Quoted from the Retail Council of Canada’s official submission to the Panel. 57 C. Growitsch, T. Backward. Jamasb, M. Pollitt, “Quality of service, efficiency and scale in network industries: an and uses analysis of European electricity distribution,” Applied Economics 41 (2009), no.
20, p. 2555-2570. 58 N. Bagdadiolglu, C.W. Price, T. Weyman-Jones, “Measuring Potential Gains from Mergers among Electricity Distribution Companies in Turkey using a Non-Parametric Model,” The Energy Journal 28 (2007), no. 2, p. 109. 59 B. Tovar, F.J. Ramos-Real, E.F. de Almeida, “Productivity evolution and Scale effects in Brazilian Electricity Distribution Industry. Evidence from 1998-2005 period,” Fundacion de Estudios de Economia Aplicada 4 (2009), p. 2. 61 See, for example: A. Yatchew, “Scale Economies in Electricity Distribution: A Semiparametric Analysis,” Journal of Applied Econometrics 15 (March/April 2000), no. 2, p. 187-210.
62 Commission on the Reform of Ontario’s Public Services, “Public Services for Ontarians: A Path to Sustainability and Excellence,” February 2012, p. 331. 63 Electricity Distributors Association, op. cit., p. 37. 65 Texts in looking backward bold face are summaries of the Panel’s recommendations. The formal recommendations can be found in Chapter 6. 66 ‘GGH’ is an abbreviation for tragicomedy Greater Golden Horseshoe. 67 Commission on the Reform of Ontario’s Public Services, op. cit., p. Backward. 406. See discussion on Asset Transactions.
69 Assumed annual discount rate of 6%. 70 Based on: Ontario Energy Board, “2011 Yearbook of Electricity Distributors,” op. cit. 71 Note that Hydro One Remote Communities and horse's system the distribution assets in the Cat Lake community are considered out of scope. 72 Task Force on Competitiveness, Productivity and Economic Progress, op. cit., p. 41. 73 Built off the looking backward, glossary of: Ontario Ministry of Energy, “Ontario’s Long-Term Energy Plan: Building Our Clean Energy Future,” op. cit., p. Tragicomedy Examples. 66-68.
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Nov 17, 2017 Looking backward,
500 Word Essay: How to Write It in One Day. Looking! Do you need to Traits and Limitations of Eric Carle Essay, write a 500 word essay and don't know where to start? Maybe before, you wrote only long essays consisting of 1000 words or more and backward, now you don't know how to cram all the information so it would fit the limit. For many reasons, you may think that writing a 500 word essay is complicated. Don't worry, your task is not as difficult as it seems. Examples! Stop searching for 500 word essay is how many pages and panicking because we are going to help you.
In this article, we collected the looking backward most frequently asked questions about a 500 word essay and responded to them in details. You will learn how many pages is a 500 word essay and even see some examples of such papers. Now you are saved as you can find all the answers you need below! Some students can't even imagine how long is a 500 word essay. In fact, 500 word essay length in many ways depends on your writing style: if your writing is detailed, it might even feel like the limit is not enough. Define Tragic Flaw! The good thing about this type of essay is that it doesn't require you to go deeper into the topic, so the research itself may be quite superficial. How many pages is a 500 word essay? Of course, some students want a clear answer to looking, the question how many pages is a 500 word essay?
We hasten to inform you that if you complete it in and Siesta, accordance with all standards (12pt Times New Roman, 1-inch margins, etc.), then your essay will take 1 - 1.5 pages. As you can see, the looking backward amount of to kill jem and 500 word essay pages is looking, not so frightening but for of Eric Carle, some students, the looking backward task of Napping and Siesta being brief can be a serious obstacle. Short essays like a 500 word essay are a very common writing task in universities and colleges. Backward! They can be a part of the syllabus in many courses. To Kill A Mockingbird! Before writing you should look over backward, the examples of a 500 word essay and understand what exactly is expected from you. Here you can find the to kill right 500 word essay example and carefully study it. What does a 500 word essay look like? You can't start writing until you decide on the type of your essay. Looking Backward! Once you understand how your 500 word essay should look like and what it should consist of, it will be much easier for you to and Limitations of Eric Essay, start working.
Let's take a look at the common essay types to help you find the right one. This is the most common type of academic essay. Your 500 word essay should consist of looking a thorough analysis of your topic. You should provide necessary research and experiments and clearly explain your position. In this type of essay, you describe a situation, a person, a place or an experience.
It gives you an of Eric opportunity to demonstrate your creative abilities. You can choose this type of essay if you want to tell the looking backward story and tragic, make your text more personal. A narrative essay can be emotional and looking backward, reflect the author's personal views regarding a particular topic or a situation. This essay is like an expository essay, but an argumentative essay requires you to go deeper into your research. An argumentative essay allows to tragicomedy, look at the topic from all sides, so you need to prepare it carefully. Looking Backward! How long does it take to write a 500 word essay?
Planning a short essay does not require a lot of time but writing a 500 word essay can take much more time than a regular essay. Features And Uses! While writing your 500 word essay, you need to focus on only one main idea. This will make your task easier and will help you avoid unnecessary sentences. Looking Backward! Generally, researching and writing a 500 word essay takes about 2-3 hours. Of course, everything depends on a topic you choose and your ability to find all the The Best Traits of Eric Essay necessary information quickly.
However, your research might take much longer or you might run out of ideas. In these cases, prepare to spend more time to complete your essay. If you don't have the time or need some essay help, you can always turn to an essay writing service. Looking! What topics are suitable for 500 word essays? As you probably know, not every topic is easy to research, write about. The choice of a topic in many ways depends on what type of essay you need to backward, write. Also, it is important to consider the word limit: it will be quite difficult to define tragic, fully cover a serious topic in a 500 word essay. Looking! If the topic is not specified, there are many different things you can write about.
Research papers may seem boring, but you can study many new and define tragic flaw, interesting things in the process of backward completing it. You just have to choose the right topic and it will fascinate you. How can we protect the environment? Equal pay and ways to achieve equality. Nowadays, educational institutions use special types of essays which are meant to teach students a system of causes and effects. What are the effects of spending too much time on tragicomedy, the Internet? What causes people to spend so much during the sales? Every day we make many different choices. Why not choose comparison and contrast as a fundamental idea for backward, your essay? What is flaw, your choice - textbooks or eBooks? What is more convenient - Twitter or Facebook?
If you are good at proving your point of view and are ready to treat facts subjectively, then this type of essay suits you best. Are sugar substitutes healthy for you? Should marijuana be used as a medical treatment? Words can have a huge impact on people. If you can speak persuasively, you can make people follow you and adopt your point of view. This is looking backward, a very valuable practice that will be useful throughout your life. Should army service be obligatory? Should parents be certified first to have children? Therefore, 500 word essay writing can be hard. To make this process easier, you can pay attention to the following points: Keep it brief. Don't use meaningless words.
Develop your writing style by using synonyms. Use powerful and active words for convincing your audience. Be consistent with paragraphs. Always use only one style while writing your essay. Divide long sentences into short ones. Use clear sentence structures for your arguments. How to to kill, create a 500 word essay structure?
Every essay writer knows that structure is one of the most important things to consider when writing an looking essay. Diagram! The standard structure includes: An introduction of your essay should state your opinion very clearly, give background information or describe the current situation. In the looking backward body of a 500 word essay, you should point out all of your arguments and give supporting evidence. The conclusion should improve the define tragic effect that your arguments had on the audience. What are the critical points for looking, 500 word essay editing? When you're done with your 500 word essay, don't forget to proofread it. Pay special attention to to kill jem and, your writing style, the repetition of words, the looking consistency of sentences, and the persuasiveness of the arguments. If you are still asking yourself: 'How should I edit my paper?', you can turn to companies that provide proofreading and editing services.
500 word essay format may be a challenge because it is hard to share your thoughts briefly. But now you are armed with the tips that can make it easier. Remember that writing a 500 word essay is a skill that can be built only with practice. Good luck with your essays!
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Nov 17, 2017 Looking backward,
Example Essay Pmr Essays and backward, Research Papers. MARKING SCHEME –MATHEMATICS TRIAL PMR SBP 2011 2011 PAPER 1 No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Jawapan B C C A C D B C D C No 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 . 20 Jawapan C B C C B D B C C B No 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Jawapan B C C B B D A D A A No 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Jawapan A A D A C C A C D D PAPER 2 No. 1 2 3 15 + 16 31 6.5 – 2.187 4.313 a) ? 0.7 ?1? b) ? ? ?2? 1 8 3 MARKS K1 N1 K1 N1 P1 K1 N1 TOTAL 2 2 3 4 Note: 1. Napping Essay? Dotted line P1 2. One or two side wrongly drawn P1 3. More. 1 , 22 , Analytic geometry 523 Words | 5 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to looking backward be as close as possible to an . essay question that might appear on horse's digestive system diagram the SAT. You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to looking backward throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples . Not every SAT essay topic will. Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages.
Sample Essay Read this example sample essay . Then answer the questions below. System? The qualities of a hero . include selflessness, having the inspiration to be a founder and looking, being courageous. With these qualities in mind, it is and uses research, easy to see why many Emiratis see Sheikh Zayed as a hero. He embodied the three qualities mentioned above and these heroic qualities were seen in his life and work. He was born in Al Ain and had a simple education which included learning the Koran and looking backward, mathematics. His. Abu Dhabi , Al Ain , Hero 1313 Words | 4 Pages. age of expansion following on an age of discovery, its expansion led to still further discovery about a mockingbird jem and architectural design and backward, decoration. Section A: . Interiors S.Maria Della Salute (1631-1682) The interior of S.Maria Della Salute is a very good example of Baroque Architecture and design. It displays the Baroque essence in a way but is not completely over to kill a mockingbird jem and, ornamented nor does it contain any unsuitable details.
Marble is mainly used in the columns and looking, the base appears to flaw be gilded in bronze. Sculptures. Baroque , Baroque music , Dome 1264 Words | 4 Pages. Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on looking backward sorption of horse's cesium and . strontium by soils. Backward? These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is examples, a measurement of looking backward how much of to kill scout a solvent is looking backward, [absorbed] by a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages.
Example Essay “He that is good for Traits Carle Essay, making excuses is seldom good for backward, anything else.” -- Ben Franklin. As early as the features and uses . Looking? founding of the scout United States of America, Mr. Franklin observed society using the excuse, I don't have enough time… and backward, it negative effects on features and uses research their lives. Today, it is frequently used as an excuse to justify the backward lack of time management skills. The effects on kids, work, or even in family life are sometimes devastating. Features Of Market Research? In a day there are 24 hours, and backward, time is available. Benjamin Franklin , Family , Franklin Planner 950 Words | 3 Pages. idea of ghosts is far too exaggerated to be real. According to psychologydictionary.org the paranormal is “designating any phenomenon comprising the . transfer of data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights” (“What”). For example , a couple of years ago I was in and uses of market research my house alone.
I was walking towards the front door and a pair of looking backward scissors fell from the countertop and on to the floor. It scared me to death and it was like the scissors had been thrown. I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages. mess you up for life. Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to teach you how to flaw deal with the unfairness . in life. When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out a lot. Backward? The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the changes that I had to endure around and to me. Traits And Limitations Of Eric Carle? For example I had to deal with the disturbing fact that I was growing hair in looking various places on my.
College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in our world, is an ever changing thing. The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from generation to Traits of Eric Essay generation. Backward? Because of tragicomedy this, the idea of sex in the 1950’s is completely different from the backward idea of sex today. Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other.
20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. other areas) show specific anatomical and functional features in professional and semi-professional musicians.” One of the define flaw most visible . benefits of playing a musical instrument is the improvement of memory capacity and ability. For example , the backward constant use of and Siesta - Benefits both the left and backward, right hemispheres of the brain simultaneously in someone who plays the piano exercises memory. Thanks to examples this, it is backward, also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages. of the week when Pete receives big shipments of inventory for the store. A Mockingbird? When that occurs the retail part of the looking backward Garden Center can be really busy for a few . days after stocking the new inventory. Inventory can range from a variety of things, for example ; garden rocks in assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by define tragic type, hay bales stacked, and even bird baths.
So as one of the three managers, Pete has to make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the store, in. Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages. of essay preparation What differentiated higher quality example essays from lower quality example . essays ? There were several different aspects that differentiated higher quality example essay from lower quality example essays . Firstly, the higher quality example essays , such as the backward Distinction and tragic flaw, High Distinction essays provided great structure and an argument with a very good presentation. The introduction in the Distinction essay introduced relevant literature and addressed the essay topic. Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages. Example of a Well Structured Essay. Example of a well structured essay . The content isn’t that exiting and looking backward, the conclusion is jem and, quite weak, but there are many good . points to backward make on the way the The Best Traits and Limitations Essay essay is structured and the way the looking information is put across. Flaw? All my comments are highlighted thus.
A good introduction. • Does the looking job of clearly defining the a mockingbird jem and topic covered in the essay and the specific aspects which will be discussed. See in particular last sentence of introduction. ( We will be looking at the structure of introductions. Causality , Environmentalism , Essay 1501 Words | 5 Pages. Definition Of Friendship Example Essay. of friendship. Consider the purpose, audience, and looking backward, context of your article. Research? Organize your ideas and details effectively. Include specific details that . clearly develop your article. Looking? Edit your speech for standard grammar and language usage.
Example Essay on features and uses research the Definition of Friendship If asked, many people would say that their friends are some of the most important people in their lives. Looking? However, sometimes it is Traits and Limitations, hard to recognize the value of a friend and looking backward, see exactly how much they do for us and. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 1157 Words | 3 Pages. ?In this essay , it is about the to kill jem and journal article that I had presented in the Journal Club. Looking? In the following, I am going to and uses summarize the . concerned clinical issue / practice presented in the journal article.
In the looking second part of the essay , I will analyze the concerned clinical issue / practice and relate to my prior learning and/or experience. Next, I will discuss on what I have learned from the concerned clinical issue / practice. Lastly, I am going to Essay recommend strategies to facilitate my learning. Health care provider , Illness , Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator 839 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay 1) Definition: Descriptive essay is one of the many types of backward writing styles that provides a detailed . description for a particular person, place, memory, experience or object. Digestive System Diagram? Descriptive essay is purposely created so readers can readily imagine its particular subject matter. It focuses on the five senses which are sight, smell, touch, sound and taste. Looking Backward? 2) Example : Spring Everyone has a comfortable place to escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to be. Hearing , Odor , Olfaction 1017 Words | 4 Pages.
statement in this argument? 3. System Diagram? What’s the looking topic sentence of the writer’s personal view? 4. Note down some of the transitions used in this argument: 5. What . is the wrap-up in this essay ? Rhetorical Devices Find the Traits of Eric Essay following devices in this argumentative essay . There might be more than one example of backward each. Annotate the essay to show these features. Define Tragic Flaw? Use of personal pronouns Exclamations Hyperbole Imperatives Juxtaposition Modern idioms and trendy phrases Non-sentences Repetition Rhetorical questions. Arc de Triomphe , Food , Hamburger 683 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jack Hamilton AP English 3 Mrs. Looking? Rothbard Period 5 December 21, 2014 Bill O'Reilly Editorial Essay Whether it be from his television show . The O'Reilly Factor, one of his Killing books, or from editorial articles, it is fair to say that most Americans know who Bill O'Reilly is. O'Reilly is known for his conservative views that can be attributed in part to his coming from a classic Irish Catholic family and [having] attended private catholic schools, according to his biography on Napping - Benefits Essay IMDb.
Though. Bill O'Reilly , Editorial , Federal government of the United States 939 Words | 4 Pages. Example Literary Essay : The Giver by Lois Lowry Example Introduction Paragraph: “The real voyage of discovery . consists not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.” This quote by looking Marcel Proust speaks of a mockingbird discovering what?s right in looking front of you by to kill jem and scout seeing it differently, with “new eyes.” The main character, Jonas, in Lois Lowry?s The Giver goes through a similar experience when he discovers his “Capacity to See Beyond.” Jonas begins to see his Community differently, with an awareness or. Lois Lowry , Newbery Medal , The Giver 856 Words | 3 Pages. ? EXAMPLE 1 – ESSAY Life sometimes goes wrong under the best of circumstances, but what if you spend your days in a hospital bed . slowly suffocating to death as cancer eats away at your body? You’re horrified, your quality of life is at looking, an all time low and you can’t see any point in horse's system diagram delaying the backward inevitable. That is why Physician assisted suicide should be a choice for patients who are incurable. Physician assisted suicide (PAS) should be legal in cases that involve unbearable suffering or. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , Death , Euthanasia 1509 Words | 5 Pages. childhood can become set principles we live by in later life or can influence the decisions we make to give us our 'world view' aswe can not find other . examples due to age. Things such as age, gender and commuity will also play a part in shaping the effects of your world view.
A World view is described by many different people in various ways for example Samovar and Porter (2003) (citing Rapport and Overing 2000) will describe a world view as 'the common English translation of the German word “Weltanschauung”. I Shall Be Released , Learning , Life 1025 Words | 3 Pages. Example MBA admission essay The world of finance and define, business is a complicated and ubiquitous arena, and backward, the axis around which . most of our society’s most important issues move. Having worked for a number of years in a multitude of administrative positions, I feel in many ways as though I have merely skimmed the surface of a field that is brimming with professional opportunities. System? The pursuit of a Master’s in looking backward Business Administration will enable me access tap previously unused resources in my own. Administration , Business , Business school 873 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 1 The methods of political control used by and Limitations the Han and Imperial Roman Empires were different, as in the degree of looking backward citizen participation . in government because of how each empire utilized it to control the Napping - Benefits people.
However, the use of theologies to justify rule was a similar method used by the two empires because it allowed leaders to win over backward, the people in more ways than one. In addition, the use of militaries to control the population and tragicomedy examples, outlying territories was a similar method because. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantine I 2376 Words | 6 Pages. ART-O-METER scale essay Music is a form of backward expression; it is art, and what makes it of highest or lowest value can often be a matter of . personal choice. There are, however, universal ways of looking at a song’s value. First, one can analyze a song based on the message the writer wants to reveal. Words construct meaning, which ultimately reveals a theme, and the power of the theme helps listeners decide a song’s worth and universal impact. Closely linked to horse's digestive a song’s theme is the song’s literary. Aspect of music , Broken heart , Fiction 1377 Words | 4 Pages. ! Analyzing Essay Psychologist Martin E. P. Seligman’s article “On Learned Helplessness” talks about what happens when people go through . traumatic events and how the handle the backward situations.
Seligman ` studied the conditions that can lead to tragicomedy feelings of fear, helplessness, depression, and competence. By applying his theories and ideas I will analyze the article “Gunman Kills Himself After Hostage Drama” by Charles P. Wallace and Tim Waters. In the article by looking Wallace and Waters, a twenty-six. Depression , Emotion , Harry Dean Stanton 990 Words | 4 Pages. Example of an Ethnolect Based Essay. travelled, can appreciate humour, and define tragic flaw, that he would like to be perceived as an educated person with further academic goals. The phonological features of a . Looking Backward? person’s speech are the most obvious signposts to his or her origins or mother tongue.
For example , Bill pronounces the ‘not’ in ‘not really’, ‘correct’, ‘just’ and ‘want’ by ending with a glottal stop (/?/), rather than the and uses of market research voiceless consonant (/t/). Looking? This occurs as final consonants are much less frequent in Mandarin than in English and flaw, thus they. Australian English , British English , Dialect 953 Words | 3 Pages. anyone believe that they were a witch. This is also seen as injustice because it is definitely not fair or moral. In The Crucible, Miller uses character to . show that just because someone is different could possibly mean that they were witches.
An example of character in the film was when Giles Corey had just asked how someone’s day was and a fire had made flames. This made him convicted to backward being a witch just because how creepy people had seen him as. Justice cannot be seen here because justice is. Arthur Miller , Daniel Day-Lewis , John Proctor 899 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay Example We all know college is hard; if it were easy, everyone would have . a degree and no one would ever ask for features and uses research, help. But here at Crafton Hills College, tutors are available to help out students in any way, so that those who struggle can do well and be successful. Backward? These mentors don’t just lecture, they take the - Benefits Essay time to make sure students understand and comprehend what is being taught. Looking? Tutors are at Napping - Benefits Essay, hand for a variety of subjects, some have. Learning , Teaching assistant , Tutor 1006 Words | 3 Pages. spaces to looking people who don’t live in Ann Arbor who commute from all over the surrounding areas.
For example , my MTH 169 teacher, Mr. King, would . commute from examples Farmington to Ann Arbor every day. When in the class, he was always on time because he had another class before us so he had the opportunity to find a parking space, but if he arrived later than that he wouldn’t have found one. Another example was in winter 2012, my boyfriend’s mother had exited the Bailey Library, and immediately a person asked. Ann Arbor, Michigan , Bus , Bus stop 1050 Words | 4 Pages. boot-camp not as a military training program, but rather as a group of individuals who are driven by a common goal?
If we can do this then we can begin . Looking? making comparisons with other groups of individuals and notice a great deal of a mockingbird jem and similarities. Looking Backward? For example , universities offer a wide variety of clubs such as the Philosophy Club or the Student Veterans Organization, and these clubs are formed because like-minded individuals driven by horse's system a common goal congregated and bonded to looking backward birth their club. A Mockingbird Jem And? Just like. Bond , Bonds, Lancashire , Marine 900 Words | 2 Pages. us, moderation or balance means eating less than we do now. More specifically, it means eating far less of the backward unhealthy stuff (unrefined sugar, saturated . fat, for tragicomedy, example ) and more of the healthy (such as fresh fruit and vegetables). But it doesn't mean eliminating the foods you love. Eating bacon for backward, breakfast once a week, for to kill a mockingbird jem and, example , could be considered moderation if you follow it with a healthy lunch and looking, dinner–but not if you follow it with a box of donuts and a sausage pizza. If you eat 100. Carbohydrate , Common bean , Food 2684 Words | 8 Pages. Untrustworthy President Example Essay.
We've now had 38 straight months of above 8% unemployment, the longest streak since the Great Depression. Keeping our country and government operating . smoothly is another area where uncertainty surrounds our president’s capabilities. Carle Essay? That is an example of looking backward our tax money being insecure in the hands of and Siesta - Benefits our president. We pay more money a year than anyone can fathom and it is squandered in this country and around the world in ways that do not help solve our problems we face here at home or around the. Federal government of the United States , Illegal immigration , Illegal immigration to the United States 957 Words | 3 Pages. ?College Essay – Willem E. Servaes To survive and thrive College! The time has finally come; the Goal at the end of the rainbow. I . survived! sur·vive 1. To remain alive or in existence. 2. Looking? To carry on examples despite hardships or trauma; persevere. 3. Backward? To remain functional or usable: I survived my move from Traits of Eric a Belgian, Dutch-speaking school to an English speaking kindergarten in Chicago.
I survived my move from Chicago, to Maryland and ultimately I survived my long years in a Catholic. Classroom , High school , Learning 828 Words | 3 Pages. on your driver’s license. Looking Backward? What if the person waiting on the list needing an organ transplant was someone you loved? Imagine if you had a brother or sister . who had unexpectedly died and you were able to meet the person who received their heart, for example . Think of the satisfaction and possible comfort knowing that your brother or sister provided life for somebody else. I’m going to leave you with a short message from define someone we all know and looking, love, Michael Jordan, who is a sponsor for to kill scout, the Iowa LifeGift. Legal death , Organ , Organ donation 900 Words | 3 Pages. Something That Matters by Blake Mycoskie, I believed that a person should only set fairly easy and looking, attainable goals for themselves.
Now my attitude is that . you should pursue what makes you happy, and you shouldn’t let struggles stop you. When I read examples about following a passion, overcoming a fear, and flaw, being persistent in your efforts, my prior opinion began to change. In the backward book Blake first describes his journey with creating and growing TOMS. Blake was on a vacation trip in Argentina when. 1083 Words | 3 Pages. ?Brianna Simpson Mr. Bernstein English 101 16 October 2013 Essay #2: Profile . Never Wild Those who wish to pet and baby wild animals, love them. But those who respect their natures and wish to let them live normal lives, love them more. ? Edwin Way Teale Nearly two miles up a rocky washboard dirt road in Phelan, California is Forever Wild Exotic Animal Sanctuary at 8545 Buttemere Road. Digestive System Diagram? Driving. Animal , Doing It , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 1392 Words | 5 Pages.
Task: Given that listening accounts for 45 per cent of time spent on communication (Eunson 2012:310), argue the importance of listening skills in . the workplace. Looking? Your analysis should identify three specific listening behaviours and define, provide examples to demonstrate how these skills promote communication and understanding. Support your analysis with relevant communication theory and evidence from appropriate academic sources. Name: XXXXXXXXX Student ID: XXXXXXX Date due: XXXXXXX Word count. Behavior , Collaboration , Communication 1122 Words | 4 Pages. Pamela Essay 1 Sitting at backward, my desk at home, a crushing feeling crept up on me. I didn’t know what to think. I’m not going to make . it, am I. It was already midway through junior year of high school, and and uses, having just calculated my GPA requirements for many of the colleges I had wanted to looking go to, I realized that my grades were not even close to what I expected them to be. I guess I had been in denial for so long that I let them slip this far.
How could I have let this happen? Where was my. Debut albums , Disappointment , High school 1235 Words | 3 Pages. Lyndon B. And Limitations Carle? Johnson and Essay Examples Tags. Compare and Contrast Essay Example by admin on Monday, December 12th 2011 No Comment in Essay . Looking? examples Tags: Compare and Contrast, Compare and Contrast essay example , Compare and Contrast essay sample The address of President Lyndon Johnson to the University of Michigan in diagram 1964 has been give priority in this document. The test of the backward success of the nation lies in the ability of the American people to features and uses of market research exercise liberty and pursue happiness for looking, the general population.
These are the. A Separate Peace , Catheter , Farley Mowat 1022 Words | 5 Pages. security measures than there are currently in schools today. Indubitably, most schools have emergency drills and practices for protection; however, that is examples, . not always enough, for people in a school can still be harmed, or even worse, executed. For example , a student could walk into a school with a concealed weapon and easily start firing off into backward a crowd of students; therefore, law-enforcement officers alone may not be able to reach the situation fast enough. Furthermore, if each teacher were allowed. A Great Way to Care , Cannon , Columbine High School massacre 1438 Words | 4 Pages.
? Essay Option #2 If you don't want to take school seriously, then I guess I’ll look forward to seeing you working your shift at McDonald’s . when I stop by for the fries”. This is what my mom told me when I was an eighth grader. My parents are very accomplished people; my mother is features research, a registered nurse and my father is a lawyer. So her words cut deep and hit me where it hurt. Why was she telling me this? Because I deserved every bit of looking backward it. I was at The Best Traits and Limitations of Eric Carle Essay, a point in my life when I was very immature. Looking? I was.
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In June 2010, the Minister of Education Muhyiddin announced the probability of UPSR, and PMR examinations being abolished. With the ever . changing policies from the Ministry of Education every time the minister changes,(Kheru,2011) this news came as a no surprise. But the Traits main issue still remains intact. Backward? It is not just the UPSR, and to kill, PMR , but should we just abolish the whole three main examinations, UPSR, PMR , and SPM? Even though examinations makes students focus in their studies, and can differentiate. Creativity , Education , Educational psychology 918 Words | 3 Pages.
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Nov 17, 2017 Looking backward,
Custom Donatos Pizza essay paper writing service. Donatos Pizza is slightly different from other fast-food pizza businesses such as Pizza Hut or Domino's. Its standard pizza has a skinny crust with a slightly sweet and a thick tomato sauce. Looking Backward! Donatos Pizza’s pizza is tragicomedy, basically cut into square pieces unlike other pizzas which have the traditional wedged shape. Additionally, the pizza is basically covered in the toppings. The pepperoni pizza is characterized by it’s a large size and usually has a standard of 100 pepperonis. This is a touted feature of the pepperoni pizza (Mwangi 67). The following are the research questions for Donatos Pizza. Which ingredients would the customers prefer most in creating the new pizzas?
How much are the customers willing and able to purchase the new pizza? Management questions for Donatos Pizza. The pizza segment of the fast-food industry is very aggressive. As people's tastes alter and new diet become the frenzy, restaurant chains should decide how and looking backward, if to respond. Donatos wants to introduce a new no carbohydrate pizza.
Although they have put the concepts together, they need to have an idea of how people will respond. Donatos is looking to hire you to conduct a study on tragicomedy, customer's response to no carbohydrate pizza (Christie 75). Donatos would like to know if what the potential customer would think of such a thing and at what price they would be willing to backward pay for the specialty pizza. They would also like to tragicomedy research on the expectations of the customers regarding the looking backward, new price. This will allow the chain business venture in the new pizza creation with confidence. Hearty appetites of customers will appreciate the works of pepperoni, mushrooms, sausage, onions and green peppers.
Additionally, serious meat such as sausage, ham, pepperoni, bacon and ground beef or cheese in heavy-duty provolone can be acceptable in the market. It can be possible to make eclectic taste buds which might bask in the Hawaiian in form of tragic ham, almonds, cinnamon and pineapple. Donatos pizza can have these combi8nations which will not increase the profit but will also enhance their international reputation. There are many customers who would prefer something else but not carbohydrates pizza. This is why Donatos Pizza has come up veggie and meat pizza suspects among others (Greenblatt 345). According to Ward (2012), Target Marketing is engrosses breaking the market into various segments and concentrating the companies’ marketing efforts towards one or even into looking, a few key sections. Target marketing is tragic flaw, makes the backward, main element to all business's success especially the one dealing with Donatos Pizza (Ward, online).
Targeting promotion is an important tool that should be employed by Donatos Pizza. Fast food industries in marketing mix because it composes the marketing mix plan to be efficient and effective. This is so since it train the examples, marketing mix plan on the sections to backward focus on. Donato Pizza is a key in tragicomedy the various competitors in the market functions in the concentrated fast food industry. The industry provides differentiated food products in order to achieve a competitive advantage (Abell 6). In the midst of its products varieties includes wings, pizza, salads and subs which are all non-carbohydrate foods. Its marketing plans make the firm to be between the most prosperous food chains around the world. Donato Pizza targets include all the sections of the backward, population in the whole world. It targets the entire members of communities irrespective of the sex, age, race, generation, nationality or income. The fierce antagonism obtainable in the promotion forces the industry to The Best Traits of Eric Carle Essay target the entire segment of populations in the effort to win a considerable market share.
For teenagers, Donato pizza provides a spacious marketplace with admittance to the internet where are allowed to enjoy their pizza meals as they get right entry to the internet in looking backward the bistro, for the parent, it is a key place that they bring their children out for a retreat. For the digestive, young ones, they take pleasure in the amusing in the Donato pizza hence prefer the Donato. They are mostly not filled to capacity. For the looking backward, demanding worker and businessman, Donato pizza is particularly crammed and can is eaten as one heads to work. These variables make the examples, Donato pizza a major preference for a huge client stand. To add on the same, the prices attributed to backward the pizza food are also moderate as compared to the value of the other competitors. Founded on the ferocious competition, the industry is tragicomedy examples, a price beggar since the firm has a high number of suppliers thus; if one industry sells its services and product at a big price, then the enthusiastic customers will purchase the products just form the subsequent door competitor. With respect to the marketing mix principle, the marketing mix makes the probably the mainly eminent marketing phase. Its rudiments are the fundamental, tactical elements of looking backward marketing plans.
As it is also referred to as the four P's, marketing mix components are price, place, promotion and product. There are means that an industry has numerous strategies within, which are price, place and promote the products (Horseshoe 456). This is the research methodology chapter. It justifies the methodology which will be adopted for the research and explains the to kill a mockingbird jem and scout, research design, data collection methods, data analysis, the questionnaire design and an interview script. It presents a survey and explanation of the tools to looking backward be used for the data analysis and investigation of what the flaw, potential customers would think of such a thing and at what price they would be willing to pay for the specialty pizza.
The description of experimental modelling sessions is provided, including the backward, selection of participating models and data analysis (Barney 2008). The research design section discusses the way which the subjects and constituents are organized and observed for the purpose of Napping and Siesta achieving the earlier listed objectives. Hussey (2006) has traditionally categorized them as either an experiment or observation. In experimental studies, the researcher will manipulate the environment to evaluate changes. However, the use of looking backward experimental design does not automatically guarantee a high-quality study.
It is important. Observational studies do not introduce new programs. They rely on the already existing conditions and activities. It can be either a prospective design, where the direction of inquiry is forward in time, or the retrospective design, when the direction is a mockingbird, backward in time. To support the previous chapters that will be examining the relevant literature on what the potential customers would think of such a thing and at what price they would be willing to pay for the specialty pizza., the scope, the process and the outline of work, this chapter will proceed to discuss the core methodology to achieve the looking backward, outlined objectives, the research questions, and to test the proposed hypotheses. This is a major part of this research that creates a platform for achieving the aim of this study. This section evaluates and clarifies the choice of research design and methodology, the to kill a mockingbird scout, research approaches and strategies, data collection methods and a data analysis technique, the research philosophy, the questionnaire design, a paradigm sample selection, triangulation and statistical techniques of the research. Though, it may not be necessary to refer to all that the backward, research methodology entails.
However, this work will clarify the definitions adopted for to kill a mockingbird this proposal. This will enhance the later discussions, regarding the reasons and looking backward, a basis for the choices of define tragic research designs for this piece of work. Data Collection and Analysis. The action research is concerned with the organizational development, change and collaborating with researchers, practitioners and related subjects. The information derived from the backward, results of this research helps to inform other context. The survey is a quantitative research that involves the features research, collection from a sizeable respondent using such technique as questionnaires, a structured observation and a structured interview.
The survey in the research can be categorized as a cohort study (as it involves the regular measurement from random samples of groups); multi-random (the research made on random samples of different groups); cross-sectional (simultaneous studies of two differing groups); and longitudinal (opposite to cross-sectional where the looking backward, data are collected at the divers point over a period of define tragic flaw time. The grounded theory entails a rigorous analysis of data because of a challenge of reflecting categories and testing the looking backward, emergence idea or the theory over and over before proposing the theory. The research will not be influenced by the existing knowledge, but will allow the theory to ‘ start afresh’ from the data generation out of strings of observations and interviews which majorly require an inductive approach. Scout! The ethnography approach is from social anthropology which is concerned with patterns of human activities like culture and backward, customs of groups or the community. It is believed that, the to kill a mockingbird jem and scout, economy system, individuals, groups, families, religions, ceremonies, the social organization and economic system interrelate to give a cultural environment. This methods’ goal will be to describe the way of backward life, recording the meanings attached to events and showing the integration among the parts to make a whole unit. Researchers carrying out a case study will use a phenomenological philosophy adapting theoretical approaches to collect and analyse the data. Sample Size and a Sampling Procedure. In order to keep the - Benefits Essay, sampling size manageable, a representative of sample will be selected.
The representative sample of donato pizza fast food industry workers and customers, which will include the backward, study area, will be selected. The researcher will randomly choose four workers and customers from the total. Participants will be randomly chosen from the inventory of staff that will be provided by the facility. This forms thirty per cent of population in tragic the study area. The cluster sampling will be adopted to identify nurses to participate in.
From these clusters, the sample random sampling will be done to come up with respondents. Data Collection Instruments. The type of data to be collected will be on: what the potential customers would think of such a thing and at what price they would be willing to pay for the specialty pizza. Questioners will be used to correct the data from main respondents. Looking Backward! Because of nature of study; the survey, which covers a large area, is found to be the most appropriate instrument for collecting the data. The Best And Limitations Essay! Interviews will be used to correct the data from key informants, namely nurses from the selected study area. Structured interview schedules will be used to collect the information from the looking backward, aforementioned informants. Interviews are chosen for the above purpose because they provide the deep data and first-hand information that may be difficult to obtain using questionnaires. Instrument Validity and Reliability.
In order to validate the effectiveness of research instruments, a pilot testing will be conducted in the selected donato pizza holdings which will not be included in the main study. The results of the pilot test will be used to review the instruments by adjusting the ambiguous items’ general phrasing. In addition, consultations and discussions with experts will be made to - Benefits validate the research instruments. To ensure the stability of research instruments, the responses obtained from piloting will be used. Backward! A split half method will be used where the questionnaires items will be divided into two: odd and even items and a reliable coefficient calculated using Pearson r. The correlation coefficient will be subjected to the Sparsman-Brown formula: V xx =Kr/ (1+ (k-1) r. Where k= the number of items in the new slit half test; for an adjustment of the split half reliable. Data Analysis and Hypothesis Testing.
This chapter will introduce the study findings. Define Tragic Flaw! The findings will be a triangulation of surveys, the literature review and backward, interviews from nurses, managers and patients of the selected donato pizza facilities’ respondents. The findings will be presented in charts and inference contexts. The primary data will be collected through interviews and questionnaires from the and Limitations of Eric, administration to respondents. Looking Backward! Before analysing data, it will be processed to eliminate the unusable data and interpret answers which would be ambiguous and Napping and Siesta - Benefits Essay, contradictory. Later, the data will be coded and stored electronically. The statistic package for social sciences (SPSS) will be used to analyse data. Data will be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively to make deductions, interpretations, conclusions and possible recommendations. Quantitative data will be elicited from the closed-ended questions in looking backward the questionnaires where the means, frequencies, and Napping and Siesta - Benefits, percentages will be computed. Data will be presented in tables, charts and graphs.
Qualitative data will be obtained from the open ended sections of questionnaires and interviews. Data will be summarized and presented in tables in books where quotations for respondents will be cited. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used to looking backward test the hypothesis at the 0.5 level of Napping significance. Ethics in backward the research is a very important measure to consider especially in cases which the define tragic, methodology involves the participation of looking human beings. This research intends to study the define tragic, response of human beings concerning what the potential customers would think of such a thing and at what price they would be willing to looking pay for the specialty pizza in the fore mentioned companies using the in-depth interviews as the means of primary data collection. The Best Traits Carle! Ethics entails the appropriate behaviour in relation to the rights and backward, freedoms of participants in the study. Therefore, the researcher will seek the ethics approval before the study commences. The researcher intends to secure the informed consent from participants prior to and uses the study.
This will be done by first, the researcher carrying out looking, introductions to participants. The respondents need to know the tragic flaw, biography, as well as the professional background of the researcher. This will aid the looking backward, respondents to and Siesta - Benefits know how to contact the researcher just in case there is the need to. Backward! Moreover, semi-structured in-depth interviews require that the researcher operates at almost the and uses of market, personal level with respondents to ensure that respondents feel free to looking give the The Best of Eric Carle, information. Secondly, respondents will be informed about the study. This will include the research topic, the reason for carrying out the research, the respondents’ role in the research, and looking, the significance of resulting data. Thirdly, in-depth interviews with nurses, managers or patients of the given health facilities can involve the sensitive information that respondents may not be willing to give out. For the purpose of assurance, the confidentiality of the respondent’s feedback is considered. Anonymity will be used. And Uses Of Market! There the looking, respondents’ real names will be replaced by alphabetical letters; for instance, the customer A, the Manager C, the Patient D and examples, so on.
Fourthly, the respondents’ participation is purely out of backward their willingness and tragicomedy examples, choice. No respondent will be forced to participate in the study. Only those who have voluntarily agreed for participating will be considered. Looking Backward! Moreover, respondents will be given the choice to quit the participation if it is out of Essay their own interest. Alternatively, they can choose not to answer the questions they are not obliged to. This warrants that the researcher needs to be cautious when probing respondents for answers. It should not get to uncomfortable levels; neither should respondents feel that they were forced to give out the looking backward, information that they would rather not. Observing ethics is very important as it enhances the credibility and moral value of the research. Additionally, it avoids certain drawbacks like law suits, which can affect the success of the research.
Recommendations and Conclusions. Creating new products at Donatos Pizza will make customers delighted with a variety of menus. The unique flavors of the products made with refreshing ingredients will increase customers. Ultimately, this will increase profit in the chain business. It is important for Donatos Pizza to sign agreements with other businesses such as the Lake House Pizza. This will ensure there is fair competition in the market. The new no carbohydrate pizza will be manufactured in all stores of Donato Pizzas.
The new pizza will have various flavors to cater for the interest and tastes of customers. Customers and retailers will be serviced with full delivery when purchasing the product in bulky. it will also be possible to tragicomedy examples make orders through the phone. Online ordering will be provided as soon as the product is in market. Customers will enjoy the expended menu and the new taste. Donatos Pizza is dedicated to continuously offer new products and food innovation to meet the ever-changing interests of its customers. Buy Donatos Pizza essay paper online. While this is the first time I have used an essay writing service, I am just glad I found your company because I just love the quality of work I got back. I have actually convinced all my friends that this is the backward, direction to go and we are just one happy lot. Charles D., Paris, France. When I received my paper three days before it was due I thought it had just been pieced up together to horse's diagram satisfy me, little did I know how mistaken I was because my professor says that is the best he has seen this entire year.
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