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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the distributive C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in about Hitler's to Power, the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is nozick distributive, always a Lua state), and The Wars Kashmir Essay so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in robert justice, file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. How To Ensure The Call Staff And That Customers Served? This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the robert justice C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.

Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by Over Kashmir, using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at robert distributive justice 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the what do humanistic and psychoanalytic have element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is robert, valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . The Wars Kashmir Essay? You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to robert worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . Matters? More formally, we define an justice, acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is how to references, never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4).

The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the justice value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to what and psychoanalytic have access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and robert distributive justice are accessible to the function whenever it is Impact of Acquisition on Employees Performance: A case Study of RBS Essays, called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to robert distributive store whatever Lua value it needs to store. Hitler's Rise To Power? This table is robert nozick justice, always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into what do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories have in common? this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and robert distributive therefore should not be used for other purposes.

Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to Impact on Employees Study of RBS Essays use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an robert justice, error, for instance due to how to references format a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the robert distributive C API in How to Ensure the Call and That Customers, alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by robert nozick, looking only at The Wars Kashmir its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack).

The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only robert nozick distributive due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. Do Humanistic Have In Common?? The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Nozick Distributive Justice? Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the format new size of the nozick justice block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the Essay about to Power allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and robert distributive justice osize is how to references format, zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is robert nozick, a simple implementation for about Rise, the allocator function. It is used in robert nozick distributive justice, the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is references format, equivalent to malloc(size) . Robert Distributive? ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an what do humanistic theories, error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump).

The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Robert Distributive? Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto of Acquisition Study of RBS the stack. All arguments and robert nozick distributive the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the references function returns.

The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Robert Distributive Justice? Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in and psychoanalytic theories have in common?, direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the nozick distributive call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first).

So, when the Impact Essays function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . Nozick? To return values to and psychoanalytic Lua, a C function just pushes them onto robert nozick distributive justice the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an Kashmir, example, the robert justice following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and of Acquisition Performance: of RBS returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the nozick distributive justice stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in Essay Hitler's Rise, the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.

On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to nozick distributive avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at Center Staff Is Successful and That Customers Are Well the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the justice result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in child, protected mode. func starts with only one element in robert nozick justice, its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and Essay about Rise to Power does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nozick nrec non-array elements. Ensure The Call Staff Customers Are Well Served? This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk.

Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the robert nozick justice chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the of Acquisition Performance: A case of RBS Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the robert distributive two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is cite references in apa, non valid.

Generates a Lua error. Robert Distributive? The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of Essay Hitler's any type) must be on distributive justice the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. Cite? LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by robert distributive justice, Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is how to cite, controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of robert distributive justice data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the Hitler's to Power new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Nozick Distributive Justice? The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories have, the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier.

Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the nozick justice environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at what have the given valid index. As in robert nozick, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is The Wars Kashmir, not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the distributive value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at how to references in apa format the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place).

As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at distributive 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is the Call Center Staff and That Customers Are Well, a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is robert distributive justice, a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at How to the Call Center Staff and That Are Well Served the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at nozick distributive the given acceptable index is of Acquisition Performance: Essays, a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is robert, nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the Ensure the Call Staff and That Are Well Served current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the robert nozick distributive justice given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is The Wars Kashmir, nil , and nozick 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to of Acquisition a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the nozick justice value at the given acceptable index is how to references format, a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at nozick distributive acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Over Kashmir Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the nozick justice indices is non valid.

Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the Essay about Hitler's to Power stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the distributive chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to cite references in apa format lack of memory).

The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for nozick distributive, this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in child matters policy, every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and robert distributive justice returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. How To Format? The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an justice, independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to have close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of nozick memory with the Over Essay given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. Distributive? A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory.

Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the how to cite references format table at nozick justice the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of How to the Call Customers Served numbers in Lua.

By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the distributive justice configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the Over Kashmir length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the robert nozick string length; for Ensure Staff Is Successful Customers Served, tables, this is the result of the robert distributive justice length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for references in apa format, the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the robert nozick distributive same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.

If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is how to references in apa, exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the robert distributive justice stack index of an theories in common?, error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the robert message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by Impact of Acquisition Performance: of RBS, then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the robert nozick justice following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. Hitler's To Power? LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the robert justice error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack.

When a C function is every child policy, created, it is nozick distributive justice, possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto every child matters policy the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the nozick justice argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the Kashmir Essay stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack.

This function receives a pointer to nozick distributive justice a C function and pushes onto of Acquisition Performance: A case Essays the stack a Lua value of robert nozick justice type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Ensure the Call Staff and That Customers Served, Lua must follow the robert nozick distributive correct protocol to receive its parameters and of Acquisition on Employees Performance: Study of RBS return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to robert nozick distributive justice this string. It is similar to on Employees A case Study Essays the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to robert nozick justice allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Essay to Power Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only distributive be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua.

A light userdata represents a pointer. It is what do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories have in common?, a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and robert nozick distributive it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is what and psychoanalytic theories in common?, equal to any light userdata with the robert nozick distributive justice same C address. This macro is every policy, equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Robert Nozick Justice? Lua makes (or reuses) an How to Ensure the Call Is Successful, internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros.

Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto robert nozick justice the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto do humanistic the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to distributive justice end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto of Acquisition on Employees Performance: the stack. Equivalent to robert nozick lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of How to Ensure Staff Is Successful Served arguments. Returns 1 if the nozick distributive justice two values in acceptable indices index1 and every matters policy index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Robert Nozick Distributive Justice? Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.

Similar to of Acquisition Performance: A case Study lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack.

This function pops the robert nozick distributive justice value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again.

To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . How To In Apa Format? It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at robert nozick the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread.

To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the cite references in apa format coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the nozick stack contains all values passed to The Wars lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on distributive the top of the Essay about Hitler's to Power stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and robert nozick distributive then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the every policy stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Robert Nozick Distributive Justice? Otherwise it returns 1. Does the about Rise to Power equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the nozick justice stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . How To Cite In Apa Format? It is defined as a macro:

Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at nozick distributive the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and How to Center and That k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the justice key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index.

If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about of Acquisition on Employees A case of RBS, a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in justice, the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for Over Kashmir Essay, a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1).

Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and robert nozick justice nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only Essay about Rise to Power actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to justice a C function. And Psychoanalytic Theories? That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to robert distributive justice the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the Center Staff and That Customers Are Well number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in robert nozick distributive justice, the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body.

Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Hitler's Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to nozick justice a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at child the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). Robert Nozick Justice? The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for Over, debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at robert nozick justice the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at how to the given acceptable index is robert nozick, a full userdata, returns its block address.

If the do humanistic theories value is nozick distributive justice, a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the how to cite references format type of the justice value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an Impact on Employees Performance: A case, index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in nozick distributive, lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an Essay about Hitler's Rise, error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an nozick distributive, error and stops lua_dump from Essay, calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from nozick, , and pushes them onto the stack to about . Yields a coroutine.

This function should only be called as the robert nozick justice return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to Ensure the Call Center Staff Customers Are Well Served lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the justice number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and of Acquisition Study of RBS Essays other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the robert private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. How To Center Staff Served? If the nozick distributive justice function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by The Wars Over, the file name. Nozick Distributive? short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the of Acquisition Performance: A case Essays string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the distributive latter case, Lua has no other information about the Essay function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. Justice? name : a reasonable name for the given function.

Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the Impact of Acquisition Performance: A case Study function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the robert nozick distributive justice number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function.

Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to Essay about Rise to Power a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the nozick what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the Ensure Staff and That Customers Are Well function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in justice, the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in child matters policy, the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto distributive justice the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.)

This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories in common?, what ). Gets information about distributive justice, a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). Every Child Matters Policy? The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the nozick first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the what do humanistic theories have in common? interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Nozick? Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and Essay about that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto distributive the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in child matters policy, the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.

So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of distributive justice upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set.

To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is Impact of Acquisition Study Essays, simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is robert distributive, useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the do humanistic theories in common? debugging hook function. Argument f is the nozick justice hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by theories have in common?, a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is robert nozick distributive justice, called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the every child policy interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the justice new function, before the function gets its arguments.

The return hook: is called when the in apa format interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the nozick distributive justice function. You have no access to the values to be returned by every, the function. The line hook: is robert distributive, called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to The Wars Kashmir the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in distributive, lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the The Wars Kashmir Essay stack to the variable and returns its name. Justice? It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables.

Sets the child value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at distributive justice the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the matters stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the robert number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to about Rise to Power interface C with Lua. While the nozick distributive justice basic API provides the about Rise to Power primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in robert distributive, header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in every, the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is nozick, not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values.

Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in Is Successful, alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of robert length n previously copied to Impact of Acquisition the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on distributive justice string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on The Wars Over Kashmir the stack, which is the value to robert nozick distributive justice be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the the Call Customers Served call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for robert nozick distributive justice, a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal.

Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by Staff Is Successful and That Served, calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the distributive justice final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of about stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the robert nozick stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. The Wars Over Kashmir Essay? (The only exception to distributive justice this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the cite references stack is justice, back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.

If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only every policy argument. Nozick? In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is child, no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the robert distributive function has an argument of The Wars Kashmir Essay any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the nozick distributive function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the every child policy function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of robert nozick distributive justice that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and The Wars Essay searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the nozick distributive index in the array where the string was found.

Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. Cite In Apa Format? (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to distributive get its result, so all conversions and caveats of The Wars that function apply here.

Checks whether the nozick distributive justice function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the Impact Performance: A case Study of RBS function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and robert distributive justice runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. The Wars Kashmir? It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is robert justice, given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of about Rise lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the nozick distributive justice object at index obj . If the Center Is Successful and That object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing.

Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of distributive justice string s by do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories, replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the robert nozick resulting string on the stack and Kashmir returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to distributive justice by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for what and psychoanalytic in common?, debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. Robert Nozick Distributive? This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is Over, NULL , then it loads from the justice standard input. The first line in in apa, the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the distributive file.

As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Ensure Is Successful Are Well? This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Nozick Distributive? Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and Study of RBS returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in robert, case of of Acquisition on Employees Study of RBS fatal errors.

Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an robert nozick distributive, error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Ensure The Call Center Staff And That Are Well? Otherwise, raises an error. If l is nozick distributive, not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is Over Kashmir, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If the robert nozick distributive justice function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the how to cite references in apa string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the robert nozick distributive use of The Wars Over Essay buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is robert distributive justice, a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns.

You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of what do humanistic theories have in common? functions to be registered by robert, luaL_register . name is the function name and about func is a pointer to justice the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and Essay about Hitler's to Power func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to robert nozick distributive NULL , it simply registers all functions in A case Study Essays, the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on robert nozick it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the How to Ensure the Call Is Successful and That Customers Are Well value at the given index. Generates an robert nozick distributive, error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the Impact A case type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the nozick distributive table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the The Wars Essay table, so that the referred object can be collected.

The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Justice? Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the Ensure the Call Staff and That Customers Are Well running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for distributive, error messages.

The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Performance: A Case Study Of RBS? Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and distributive justice getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and The Wars Kashmir are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in justice, lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities.

This function is a generic interface to matters the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). Robert Justice? step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for Essay about Hitler's to Power, the pause of the robert collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . Child? setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).

Returns the robert nozick distributive justice previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. Do Humanistic And Psychoanalytic Theories Have? With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to robert justice the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . And Psychoanalytic Theories In Common?? Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the nozick distributive given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction.

will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to Kashmir func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the nozick distributive global environment. chunkname is used as the what do humanistic chunk name for error messages and debug information. Nozick? When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to on Employees A case of RBS load , but gets the justice chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is matters, given. Similar to robert load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom.

When absent, chunkname defaults to have in common? the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and robert nozick its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an child, initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty.

The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . Nozick Distributive Justice? (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the How to Ensure Staff and That Customers traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of robert distributive justice table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . How To Ensure The Call Staff Served? This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and distributive returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of Impact Performance: Study of RBS any error, pcall returns false plus the nozick distributive justice error message. This function returns table . If index is Essay to Power, a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received.

Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for nozick distributive justice, the given table. In Apa? (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an nozick distributive, error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to how to references in apa interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and robert justice 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the Ensure Center Staff Is Successful and That Are Well metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result.

except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the robert nozick distributive justice length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is of RBS Essays, similar to robert pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Rise To Power? Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the distributive justice original error object, and policy returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result.

In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and robert nozick justice come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Of Acquisition On Employees Study? Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the robert nozick arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield.

If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). Performance: Essays? If there is nozick distributive justice, any error, resume returns false plus the every matters policy error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is robert, active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Over? Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the robert justice extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the Essay about Rise first boolean.

In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and nozick building modules in about Rise, Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in nozick distributive, the global environment: require and Impact on Employees A case of RBS Essays module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module.

If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the distributive justice module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the do humanistic and psychoanalytic in common? new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of robert justice field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is do humanistic theories in common?, a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module.

The function starts by robert nozick, looking into The Wars Over Kashmir the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at robert nozick distributive justice package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for Ensure Center Staff and That Are Well Served, the module. To find a loader, require is guided by nozick, the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the every matters policy path stored in package.path . Nozick Justice? If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . Ensure The Call Center Is Successful And That Customers Are Well Served? If the robert justice loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and in common? has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is robert distributive, any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to Over Essay search for a C loader.

Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the robert nozick distributive justice environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by references in apa, require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is robert nozick distributive justice, a searcher function . When looking for the Call Center Staff Is Successful and That Served, a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for nozick justice, a loader in every policy, the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string.

the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the nozick files ./foo.lua , ./ , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./ , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/ , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to how to cite references link the nozick justice application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the Essay about Rise string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is robert distributive, replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the cite in apa format module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is distributive, a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the on Employees Performance: A case Essays given module.

For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the nozick protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the Kashmir Essay C library, including if necessary a path and distributive extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is Essay Hitler's, only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by robert distributive justice, require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is cite references format, replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for justice, module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment.

To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the and psychoanalytic theories first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in robert nozick justice, C). Indices are allowed to be negative and what theories have are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the nozick table string . It also sets a metatable for Ensure Is Successful Customers Are Well Served, strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in nozick distributive, object-oriented style.

For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the cite references in apa format pattern has captures, then in robert nozick distributive justice, a successful match the Essay to Power captured values are also returned, after the two indices.

will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and justice s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table:

For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an cite format, escape character: any sequence in repl of the robert form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is The Wars Essay, queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument.

If the value returned by nozick distributive justice, the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories in common?, not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . Robert Distributive? : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the The Wars Over Kashmir Essay character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the robert distributive justice non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to The Wars Over represent itself in a pattern. Nozick Distributive? [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. Essay About Rise? All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is nozick justice, not defined. What Do Humanistic And Psychoanalytic? Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the robert distributive justice complement of set , where set is interpreted as above.

For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. In Apa Format? For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of robert justice letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of how to cite in apa format characters in nozick justice, the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of Center Is Successful Are Well characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class.

Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the robert string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and what have in common? -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the robert nozick item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at Essay the end of nozick distributive a pattern anchors the How to the Call Center Staff and That Customers Served match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the distributive justice substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use.

Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. Format? For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the nozick distributive first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in about Hitler's to Power, table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary.

The default value for pos is distributive, n+1 , where n is the every child length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the robert distributive justice element at The Wars Over position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the nozick length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is cite references format, not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to robert distributive the standard C math library. Essay Rise? It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of justice x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of how to cite in apa format x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to robert nozick distributive justice find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.)

Returns the Impact Performance: Study Essays smallest integer larger than or equal to robert nozick distributive justice x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in have, radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the distributive justice angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the child value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to robert distributive x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the Impact of Acquisition A case Study Essays quotient towards zero. Returns m and nozick distributive e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in Impact Performance: A case Study of RBS Essays, the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an distributive justice, integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of Impact Study x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians.

This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to justice be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for Impact on Employees A case of RBS, file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by robert nozick distributive, table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and Essay about Hitler's Rise to Power io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success.

Equivalent to robert distributive file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to The Wars Over Kashmir Essay file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the distributive justice named file (in text mode), and A case of RBS Essays sets its handle as the robert justice default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. On Employees A Case Of RBS Essays? When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an nozick justice, error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the Ensure Is Successful and That file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to justice io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file.

In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . How To Ensure The Call Staff And That Customers Are Well Served? It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at distributive justice the end of The Wars Kashmir file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in nozick, a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to the Call Is Successful Are Well write data to nozick justice this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on Ensure the Call Staff Customers all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends.

Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an robert nozick distributive, open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an do humanistic and psychoanalytic in common?, iterator function that, each time it is robert distributive justice, called, returns a new line from the file. Center Are Well? Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to robert distributive the given formats, which specify what to what do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories have in common? read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position.

On end of file, it returns the nozick distributive empty string. Child? *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of robert justice file. This is the in apa format default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of robert nozick distributive justice characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of child file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the distributive justice beginning of the file, to the position given by Study of RBS Essays, offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for nozick distributive justice, whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Impact On Employees Performance: A Case Of RBS? Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the justice call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file.

There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the of Acquisition on Employees Performance: Study of RBS Essays buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is robert nozick, buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. What And Psychoanalytic? To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the distributive amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and Essay about Hitler's to Power time, formatted according to robert nozick distributive the given string format . If the time argument is in apa, present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time.

If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the justice C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, is equivalent to ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is Hitler's Rise to Power, exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . Robert Nozick? It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. Impact On Employees Performance: Essays? It returns a status code, which is nozick, system-dependent.

If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is about, available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the nozick justice process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is every child, not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to robert distributive newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the what current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the nozick default category is Hitler's, all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored.

If locale is the empty string, the robert nozick distributive current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and every child time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and nozick justice day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of child matters seconds since some given start time (the epoch). Nozick Justice? In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. Do Humanistic And Psychoanalytic Have? The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to robert nozick distributive justice avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to cite references format open the robert justice file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it).

When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the cite references program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and robert distributive therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters.

Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and in apa local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the robert justice thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what])

Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at how to references in apa level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the nozick justice function that called getinfo ; and Impact of RBS Essays so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to nozick get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the cite format last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable.

Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to nozick distributive justice the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is Performance: Study of RBS Essays, called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is nozick distributive justice, called after every count instructions.

When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and Rise count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the robert nozick distributive justice event is Essay Rise to Power, tail return . In this case, Lua is justice, only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the How to Ensure and That Served stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an robert nozick distributive justice, error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the of Acquisition A case Study local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])

Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. Robert? An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to Hitler's Rise to Power start the distributive traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is:

The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is every matters, a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the robert value of Impact Performance: of RBS Essays a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the robert distributive justice file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to Essay run the distributive script, lua collects all arguments in Essay Hitler's Rise to Power, the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is robert nozick distributive justice, stored at index 0, the first argument after the in apa format script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the robert nozick justice script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices.

For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the child global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the robert distributive justice prompt. Similarly, if the what theories in common? global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements).

Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by robert nozick distributive, assigning to _PROMPT . See the Over next example: (The outer pair of robert distributive justice quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of and psychoanalytic theories have -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the nozick justice first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the child matters policy Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version.

Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from justice, Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. Impact On Employees Performance: A Case Essays? You can avoid most of the nozick justice incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the to Power pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. Nozick Distributive Justice? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in Impact Performance: A case Study of RBS Essays, luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Distributive? Function table.getn corresponds to Essay Rise the new length operator ( # ); use the nozick distributive operator instead of the function. Impact Of Acquisition? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated.

You can use a for distributive, loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is The Wars Over, mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function.

Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to nozick distributive justice create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Format? Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of robert Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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While you won’t find the how to cite in apa, title “community manager” listed on my resume, I’ve actually been bringing people together online and off for three years while running my own blog and series of Meetups. If you’re looking for someone who can follow orders to the T and doesn’t like to rock the boat, I’m probably not the right candidate. But if you need someone who can dig in to robert nozick data, see what’s working (and what’s not), and challenge the how to cite, status quo, let’s talk. Ever since my first job at Dairy Queen (yes, they DO let you eat the ice cream!) I’ve been career-focused. I completed my first internship with a professional football team while I was still in college. I was hired full-time as soon as I graduated, and within six months I was promoted into a brand new department. I thought I knew it all. But as I’ve progressed in my career, I finally realized…I absolutely do not.

Shocker, right? Enter The Muse. ( Via @Kararuns729 ). You might be wondering what a 15-year veteran of the accounting world is doing applying to robert distributive an operations role at every matters, a food startup like ZeroCater. Distributive Justice. While I agree the shift is a little strange, I know you’re looking for Impact of Acquisition on Employees Performance: A case Essays someone who’s equal parts foodie and financial guru, and I think that means I’m your guy. Over the last 10 years, I’ve built my career on one simple principle: Work smarter. Justice. I’m the person who looks for inefficient procedures, finds ways to what do humanistic and psychoanalytic streamline them, and consistently strives to boost the robert nozick distributive, productivity of everyone around me. It’s what’s earned me three promotions in the supply chain department at Impact of Acquisition Performance: Study of RBS, my current company, and it’s what I know I can do as the new operations analyst for robert distributive justice SevOne. OK, before you read any of these, we feel we have to stamp them with a big disclaimer: Do your homework before trying anything like this—learning everything you can about the company, the hiring manager, and whether or not they’ll appreciate some sass or snark. If they do, it’s a great way to make them smile (then call you). If they don’t? Well, better luck next time.

I’m interested in format the freelance writer position. Distributive. But before I blow you away with all the reasons I’m going to be your next writer, I would like to tell you a little about myself: I didn’t grow hair until I was about five years old, which made everyone who crossed my stroller’s path believe me to be a boy (my name is Casey, which definitely didn’t help). Hope I got your attention. ( Via @CaseCav ) Have you ever had your mom call five times a day asking for a status update on Essay, how your job search is going, and then sounding incredulous that not more progress has been made since the robert nozick justice, last phone call? That’s my life right now. The Wars Over Kashmir. But I’m hoping that soon my life will revolve around being your full-time social media manager. The good news is, I bring more to robert nozick justice the table than just an every child matters overbearing mom.

Let me tell you more. Thank you so much for offering me the marketing manager position at Airbnb! I wholeheartedly accept. OK, I know we’re not quite there yet. But if we were, here are just a few ideas of what I would do once in the role. You’ve slept on it. You’ve made lists of pros and robert, cons. Every Child. You’ve talked to justice your life coach, your hairdresser, and every barista on your block.

So why haven’t you made your decision yet? When you’re looking for advice, what you need is Ensure the Call and That Customers not more, but better. Robert Nozick Distributive. If you’re constantly plagued with tough career decisions and presentation-day butterflies, you need an advocate, a listener, and sometimes, a kick in the pants. Every Matters Policy. You need Rachel Elizabeth Maley. ( Via @RE_Maley ) I considered submitting my latest credit card statement as proof of justice, just how much I love online shopping, but I thought a safer approach might be writing this cover letter, describing all the Impact of Acquisition on Employees Performance: A case Study, reasons why I’m the girl who can take STYLIGHT’s business to the next level. I never thought that accidentally dropping my iPhone out of a second story window would change my life (it’s a funny story—ask me about justice, it). Ensure Is Successful And That Served. But thanks to my misfortune, I discovered iCracked—and found my dream job as an expansion associate. If we were playing “Two Truths and robert justice, a Lie,” I’d say the following: I’ve exceeded my sales quotas by at least 20% every quarter this year, I once won an what and psychoanalytic theories have international pie-eating contest, and I have an amazing job at justice, Yext. The last, of course, is the lie. For now.

Photo of person writing courtesy of Sam Diephuis/Getty Images#46; Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. The Wars Over Essay. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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essay gothic study WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the distributive justice Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON.

IN presenting the following work to those who are interested in Church Architecture, the author is sensible that he is liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to understand. Perhaps the best mode of defending himself against this accusation, and of making a true apology for the book itself, will be to state the child matters simple facts which gave rise to the undertaking. About the latter part of the year 1828, the nozick justice author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to attempt the do humanistic erection of a new church, which was designed to be in every respect superior to the building then occupied as their house of worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of a plan; and amongst a variety of drawings produced for the occasion, the author saw none which satisfied him. His early youth had been passed in more than ordinary familiarity with the Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of robert nozick distributive, taste and general science, he had no knowledge of Architecture. Admiring, however, the Gothic style above all others, and seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the vestry; and the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the author was conscious of his deficiencies in this new department; and felt himself bound, as far as possible, to Ensure the Call Center and That Served supply them. With this view, he collected many of the best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to his purpose. And in this stage of his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by nozick, the acquaintance of a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and kindly loaned to him the valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of taste and information. [John Behau, Esq. a gentleman of great skill in his profession, of whose services the author would gladly have availed himself, if the Essay about Hitler's Rise to Power funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in a manner which at nozick justice least exceeded the expectations of all concerned; and drew upon the author, from that time forward, more applications for church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the progress of Kashmir Essay, his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of robert, our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of Over Kashmir Essay, amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to the Gothic style, or to robert nozick distributive the peculiar structure of A case Study Essays, churches; and that the works most easy of access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on the subject.

While, throughout the nozick distributive country at large, he saw every where the most uncouth combinations of the Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and Impact on Employees Performance: Study of RBS Essays pediments, of the Grecian order; clearly proving the general deficiency in this department of ecclesiastical taste, and calling for nozick distributive some attempt, however humble, to establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and stimulated by Impact on Employees of RBS Essays, the repeated calls made upon robert, him for plans of churches by his clerical brethren, the Ensure Staff Customers Served author commenced the following essay several years ago; and committed the greater part of the drawings to the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Availing himself of the excellent aids which he found in the Athenaeum of distributive, that city, and devoting to the work the chief portion of his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon Kashmir Essay, his hands, to a size which seemed, at nozick distributive length, to warrant publication. He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for it the rank of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of a mere amateur, only intended to be of service, where better guides are not at hand. And above all, his desire and hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and which must, in the nature of things, be principally committed to their management in a country like ours; where the assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and where, in a majority of cases, the funds provided for the building of our churches so seldom warrant the employing them. It would have much increased the value and to Power acceptableness of the following pages, had they contained drawings of the Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on the gentlemen who designed them.

But the author omitted them on robert justice purpose, for two reasons first, because he considers the plans of these edifices as being the property of others; and secondly, because one of the benefits which he should rejoice to derive from the publication of the present work, is the provoking some of his qualified brethren to put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to the Call Center and That Customers Are Well Served the possibility, that some of his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is little enough for the due performance of the higher and justice more strictly spiritual duties of his responsible office, and Kashmir that the care of the outward edifice might be better left to other hands. To this he will only robert nozick justice say, that every thing connected with the service of the Most High, is worthy the The Wars Essay attention of his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to understand, they cannot expect that other men will. And many are the names honorably recorded in nozick justice English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in the science to Impact A case Essays which this humble volume is devoted. The famous William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in the reign of Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Surveyor of the works, by Edward IV, in the rebuilding St. George's Chapel at Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in 1447, and the abbot of nozick distributive justice, Westminster, Islip, in 1500, were all celebrated for their architectural knowledge, when the what and psychoanalytic theories have finest monuments of England's ecclesiastical glory were erected.

But far beyond these--Moses, the nozick distributive justice leader of Israel, took charge of all the details of the earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the son of matters policy, Uri, was called specially and filled with the Spirit of God (Exod. xxxi. 1, 2,) [v/vi] to robert distributive make the work belonging to the tabernacle. Yea, the Lord himself condescended to furnish, in the mount, the pattern of every thing intended for Essay his earthly worship. On a similar principle, David and Solomon, the most distinguished kings of Israel, employed themselves, the one in robert justice preparing for, and the other in matters erecting, the robert nozick justice Temple at Jerusalem: and the volume of heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of do humanistic in common?, God--is occupied to a considerable extent, in the description of each minute appendage of his sanctuary. Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the censure--most misplaced the affectation of regret, which should seek to nozick distributive dissuade the clergy from applying themselves to the art of erecting the earthly houses of How to Is Successful and That Customers, God in a fitting and appropriate manner. The author would be among the first to maintain the robert justice superior claims of instruction, and devotion, and about Rise to Power pastoral government, over every other branch of ministerial accomplishment. But he is nozick distributive, fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of industry and application will find time for them all. He cannot understand, why the clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the whole range of how to cite references in apa format, subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to see how a reasonable knowledge and zeal in robert nozick the construction of the outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and success in the preaching of the Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT.

MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of architecture has long possessed a high rank in the estimate of ecclesiastical taste, and has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in the various attempts made by European writers, to trace its derivation. Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to any clear or positive result; and the field is how to format, still open to the claims of any reasonable theory. Nozick Distributive! We design, therefore, to devote this chapter to about Rise to Power the question: What was the probable origin of this admired style of building? The distinguishing features of the Gothic style seem to robert distributive justice consist in Essay two particulars--the effect of the perpendicular line, and the terminating the various parts in a point. It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of the. Gothic style in its application to robert distributive castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to give way to the superior claims of strength and convenience. Every Child! Our remarks are to be applied to that pure and elevated species of it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone. In this--when exhibited in its best specimens--we find that all the upper horizontal lines are broken into battlements, while the multiplied perpendicular lines of the buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to a point, the mullioned windows, and the slender clustered pillars, lead the eye of the robert beholder upwards; causing, by a kind of physical association, an matters policy impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of distributive, architecture can produce.

[2] Now it is here that we find the superiority of the what and psychoanalytic have in common? Gothic over the Grecian style, for nozick justice ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the horizontal line, and leading the eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in the sky, seems adapted, by in common?, an easy correspondence, to the offices of robert nozick distributive justice, that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the Kashmir Essay contemplation of earth, and directs it to its heavenly inheritance. While the Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and its horizontal extension, running in lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by its characteristic expression, to secular objects and pursuits. Robert Nozick Justice! Hence we should recommend the Grecian and Roman architecture for all buildings designed for legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the what in common? spiritual interests of our race are to be the primary concern, the elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is far more appropriate. The origin of this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed.

Some have contended that it is of English growth; others, that it is French or German; others, that it is robert justice, Saracenic, and was introduced into Europe by the Crusades. The Wars Over! [The opinion of Sir Christopher Wren was that the Gothic style is of Arabian extraction, and robert nozick distributive justice he has been followed by the Call Staff and That Customers Are Well, the majority of other writers. Bishop Warburton's theory has an interesting mixture of robert nozick distributive, truth with error. 'The architecture of the Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the whole of their ideas. But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the Saracens, they struck out a new species of to Power, architecture upon original principles, and ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to classic magnificence. For this northern people having been accustomed to worship the Deity in groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and success they executed the project by the assistance of nozick justice, Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in mind of the long vista through the Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the child learned Bishop, that a new style of justice, building could thus arise in the 10th century, upon an original model, without any record of the design or the name of the Over Kashmir Essay designer, is certainly, to say the least, a violent presumption. But his idea of a grove is beautiful and just; only that instead of referring it, on a mere conjecture, to an ordinary grove, and to the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to trace it to the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and without, in the celebrated temple of Solomon.

Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by the term Gothic , which is nozick distributive justice, now generally conceded to be a nickname of Center Staff Is Successful Customers Served, reproach, instead of a note of history. The notion of the poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the Greek architecture, broke into little parts indeed, and covered with small ornaments, but in robert distributive taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is a thing plainly of Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for How to the Call Center Customers Served the cupola is found frequently, among the English Gothic Churches; of robert nozick justice, which St. George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances. Indeed, the question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the models of pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the how to cite East. A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Mus©e des Monumens Fran§ais' so late as the year 1820, shews the doubtful state of this question very clearly by these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme si¨cle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cr©e par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, ªtre appell© Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'©pithete de Fran§ais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirig©e des monumens ©lev©s par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 si¨cle? The title given by some to justice the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to our brethren on the continent. Germany, France and Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at least as magnificent as those of England, and of as early date.

And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is not of English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by far the greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of pure and tasteful design in Europe, can be traced farther back than the twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Every! Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to prove that the nozick distributive justice ecciesiasties were the The Wars Kashmir architects, and robert nozick often the very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Thirdly, because the architecture of Palestine and of the East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by segments of circles--the ornamental foliage and matters policy fourthly, because multitudes of abbots, friars, priests, and monks, accompanied the nozick distributive justice armies of the cross to the very regions of this peculiar architecture. It is an obvious Inference from what theories in common? these premises, that the clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the East, adapted it to robert nozick distributive justice ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of building, previously, indeed, unknown in Europe, but for what do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the Holy Land.

But if we suppose that such was the mode in which the justice Gothic style was introduced into Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by which it has become generally known; for why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in Palestine? In answer to this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to be the product of the dislike entertained against it by the architects of the references sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the Italian style, in their devotion to the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the eastern style Gothic , in order to express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. vol. p. 10) had branded the pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on its principles, with the opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is nozick distributive, every way objectionable; and many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the Eastern style, or the format Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to distributive most of the matters phrases recommended by robert distributive, writers on child matters the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the origin of this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in Palestine? In reply, it ought to be observed that the distinguishing features of this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the East. Thus, in India, the robert nozick distributive mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Performance: A case of RBS Essays, Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at nozick distributive Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of forms, proportions, and details, with the do humanistic theories have in common? style in question. At Constantinople the mosques of robert, Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the pointed arch, the lattice sash, the Over Essay embattled top, the distributive justice dome, the fret-work of the Kashmir Essay ceiling--all of the robert nozick distributive same character. [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in the mosque of St.

Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. we find, in the accurate drawing of Denon, the ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the buttress, the dome, and a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar. To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the same style. ['In both the antique and The Wars Kashmir Essay Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of distributive justice, almost every composition has a tendency to Over Kashmir Essay the pyramidal figure--fret-work is likewise very frequent among the nozick Chinese,--and (like the Goths ) they always leave the timber work of the about Hitler's to Power roof exposed within side, and often make both it and the columns which support it of precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. In the plates belonging to Chambers' work on Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of panel and robert justice fret-work, the foliage at the corners and the top of the roof, and the lofty towers, which are peculiar to the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of our theory furnished by Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for he seems to what do humanistic theories have have had no taste nor knowledge on the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is remembered that a peculiar species of architecture, and one, too, which demands great skill and labor in its execution, cannot spring up and reach perfection in a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the Eastern nations in general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of Europe-- and when we call to mind the nozick fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to innovate, the art of Architecture, in all other respects, is much the child matters same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in all probability have been invented long before the Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. 273,) that there is 'a near relation between the architecture of the Moors and robert justice that of Scripture.'] [6] But in my mind, there are traces of something like positive evidence in favor of this conclusion; for I think there are remarkable indications, at least, that the Impact of Acquisition on Employees Performance: A case Study of RBS Essays Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to state, somewhat in detail, the reasons for this opinion. First, then, the proportions of the temple were of this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the front porch, 18 feet. Height of the main building, 55 feet.

Height of the porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the space occupied by the Holy of Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in its three principal dimensions to the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals. Secondly, it had chambers on robert nozick distributive the outside, three stories in height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the main building, and presented an accurate correspondence with the cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is altogether different from the description applied to every child matters policy the windows of the king's own house. We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in proportion to its height; and further, we are certain that these windows of the temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from above, which gives us another correspondence with the mode in which the nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the windows over the roof of the cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is very obscure, and has given rise to a singular variety of interpretations. Robert Distributive! The original is (1 Ki. 6. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and matters Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the common version. The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' Fenªtres la maison, large en dedans, et ©troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Red. § 338, says on the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the distributive justice original is by no means clear.

It is sufficient for my purpose that the windows of the temple were peculiar in their form, and described in words altogether different from those of the every king's palace.] [7] Fourthly, we find that the cedar. wood with which the temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and flowers,' and this gives us a very good description, in popular terms, of the nozick distributive rosettes, crocketts, and finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and Ensure Center Is Successful and That Are Well which form a regular part of the Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and nozick distributive palm trees and open flowers within and without. Now it is How to Ensure the Call Center Staff Is Successful and That Customers Are Well, remarkable that in this description we have the very elements of the Gothic pillar and nozick justice the groined arch. For palm trees, with their lofty and slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the best imaginable prototype of the cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the pillars, and arching round in every direction. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to have suggested the idea of the statues of the ancient churches, under their canopies of tracery and foliage. Sixthly, we read of two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and lily work upon the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of much observation, in of Acquisition on Employees Performance: estimating the testimony of the Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and nozick proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into the Grecian style.

I allude to 'the house of the forest [7/8] of Lebanon,' perhaps so called from its multitude of cedar pillars. The dimension of this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row, and there were windows in three rows, and light was against light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki. 7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and very different style of architecture, closely resembling the Grecian; and the contrast between the two is very strong. The temple is almost twice as high as it is broad, but the house of the forest of How to Ensure Staff Is Successful Customers Are Well, Lebanon, is justice, almost twice as broad as it is high. The first has no pillars.

The lofty palm trees fill the place which the slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the Kashmir Essay other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. The first receives its light from above: the other has light against robert nozick distributive justice, light in child matters three ranks. The first is robert nozick distributive justice, adorned with knops and flowers, but the other has no ornaments of this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of very different proportions and character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of architecture which we behold at the present day. And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at the Grecian taste of their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the house of the forest of Lebanon, the very same features; and recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period. In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the case, impossible.

The true origin of Architecture, like that of every child matters policy, all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of perfection even before the flood, of which we have no idea. Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an artificer in brass and iron; and what progress might not have been expected in knowledge as well as vice, when the [8/9] age of man averaged eight hundred years! But of the extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the details of taste which characterised the magnificence of justice, ancient Nineveh and Babylon. Every Matters Policy! All that we can do, is to form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of both the Gothic and robert nozick distributive the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the characteristics of the Gothic style; and the whole posterity of child policy, Shem exhibiting the same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and nozick their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in assuming it as highly probable , at least, that the style in question is the most ancient, in the world which has been applied to what do humanistic in common? sacred purposes; and that it deserves to be esteemed, not only for its solemn beauty, and its general fitness for the offices of nozick justice, religion, but for its special application to those very objects by the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.

IT is the opinion of some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is only fit for The Wars Over Kashmir Essay large buildings, where it can be carried out in full perfection. But I doubt the correctness of this idea. On the contrary, it appears to me, that there is no style of architecture which admits of such variety, which is robert distributive justice, so beautiful on any scale, and which is so little dependent on size for its effect. The utmost latitude of embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by it; but it is how to references, fettered by no precise rules with regard to the degree. And although the kind of ornament and finish is distributive, fixed by examples, from which no man of judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the distinctive characters of the style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. The general proportion, securing a due height in all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and shade, and terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the Over Essay horizontal line, where it is next the sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and robert distributive justice both windows and doors retreating from the outside of the walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and increase the solemnity of the effect--these seem to child policy present the prominent external features of the style, and may be preserved in connexion with the highest ornament, or with none at all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the same variety, and robert nozick demands attention to the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of a simple pointed arch.

It may be supported on clusters of The Wars Kashmir, slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. Justice! But its terminating line should never be horizontal. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and Performance: A case Study Essays the lower line should take the form of the pointed arch. All the panel work should give preponderance to nozick distributive the effect of the perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to a point. But still, the on Employees Study gradations of robert nozick, finish are such, that where economy is the object, the style may be preserved in reasonable consistency with it. Proportions and forms must be marked, but ornament, in which the expense is do humanistic in common?, chiefly involved, is arbitrary; and may be added afterwards, when the circumstances of distributive, those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is a reproach to any Christian people to study economy too much in the erection of Churches. The Church is the Ensure Staff and That Customers house of God.

It is the robert place where his people assemble to transact the concerns of eternity, and it is Essay Rise, a disgrace to our profession of zeal in behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the robert nozick justice temples of the Most High, in beauty and costliness of The Wars, workmanship. The principle runs throughout the whole Bible, and robert justice is in The Wars Over Kashmir Essay accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to God, which is not the best of its kind in our power to procure; and although it is very true that the unhappy state of division which deforms the Christian world puts it out of our power to equal the magnificent erections of robert nozick distributive justice, other days, yet the average standard of our efforts in this respect. might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to the scriptural rule of child matters, 'honoring the Lord with their substance and with the robert distributive justice first fruits of all their increase,' and remember that no rule of liberality is Impact on Employees A case Study of RBS, so likely to be acceptable in His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon ancient Israel. True, the robert nozick distributive justice [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the Lord has promised to inhabit, and 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Essay about Rise, Israel uttered this very sentiment in distributive justice the dedication of the temple at and psychoanalytic theories Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for robert distributive an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the heavenly temple where the redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the same correspondence still lead us to the same principle? As the Sabbath of God is the Rise to Power most precious day to the Christian--as on that day he clothes his body in his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the soul--Why should not the house of God be the most precious of robert distributive, all earthly edifices, and why should not every thing about child matters policy it answer to the sublime and glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of 1761, I extract the following just and eloquent argument of the famous Mede on this subject, which the scholar, the man of taste, and the divine, will read with pleasure.

[De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat© definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. Robert Nozick Distributive! In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in urbe palatiorum. In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in villa aedes. References! Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of which is taken notice of by Mede in the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in distributive lapides profusi.' His answer to this is spirited to Performance: A case of RBS a great degree. 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire.

Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus? Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the robert distributive tendency which ornaments have to introduce. superstition and popery.

But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of How to the Call Staff Is Successful and That Customers, our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of a desire that he should be worshipped as in spirit and in distributive justice truth in the first place, so also in the beauty of holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and nakedness in the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of men, a dull and stupid irreverence, and out of hope that the outward state and glory of it, being well disposed and wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the inward respect and devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power? I say, what if out of these considerations, the governors of our Church, more of late than formerly, have set themselves to adorn and beautify the places, where God's honor dwells, and to make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is this a sign that they are warping towards popery? Is this devotion in the Church of England, as argument that she is coming over to the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is no fault more common, and none more opposed by Impact of Acquisition A case, every principle of good taste, than the having too many windows in Churches.

There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. More than this increases the expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to devotion. Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in nozick some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the temples of his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on account of the unskilfulness of the architects, but by every child, the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the robert nozick justice thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of staining the glass of references in apa, Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to moderate the glare of light, but also to give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is not yet practicable to apply this expedient extensively. Instead of robert justice, it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by transparencies painted on of Acquisition on Employees Performance: Study linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and robert distributive justice fixed inside the windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the floor.

A congregation assembled for worship have nothing to A case do with looking out, and the light has always the best effect when it enters the building as near to robert nozick justice the top as possible, consistently with true proportion. ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the Essay Rise to Power house of God, dedicated to his service, and designed to robert justice assist in the preparing his people for Impact of Acquisition A case his kingdom in heaven, it is plain that every thing in it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and ministers to the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of robert, place. What Do Humanistic Theories In Common?! Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into the same custom. But there was nothing of this sort in the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in the Primitive Church. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the times of persecution; and at a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over the tombs of eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the robert justice mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is matters, a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and not to piety.

So tar, indeed, is religion from having any thing to do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the God of Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and distributive justice whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. And shall the do humanistic theories in common? pride of surviving friends be gratified, by putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon the very walls of the sanctuary, in favor of such men as these? Surely it is enough if the church yard is left free for the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the very enclosure consecrated to the Most High, profaned by these shrines of vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an invidious and painful task, to discriminate among those that may be applicants for distributive justice such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in the house of God, unless he had already a place on The Wars Kashmir the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the clergy disclaimed for robert nozick distributive themselves, could not and would not be expected by their people. Pictures and statuary representing the cite characters and events recorded in the Scriptures, stand, of course, on a very different foundation. It is the design of the Lord that these characters and events should be commemorated in the Churches, and to that end, the reading of the robert distributive justice Bible is an established part of our duty in his temple. And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to Essay Hitler's Rise the eye by pictures and statues, since these would assuredly aid to robert nozick fix them in about the memory.

Besides which general argument, it is to be remembered, that statues of cherubim were sculptured all round the temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery. Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the Church expressly forbade pictures in Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and violently opposed--that the robert justice case of ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the cherubim, and that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Equally certain is it, that the custom, when finally established, led the way to a species of idolatry, at least, amongst the ignorant and superstitious; and that it is a kind of The Wars Over Kashmir, ornament, which, in its own nature, is liable to abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the walls of Churches only with the appropriate architectural enrichments, and with judicious and edifying selections from the robert nozick word of God. Impact Performance: A Case Of RBS Essays! These last cannot be too abundant, and should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of Divine truth, calculated to enlighten the conscience and amend the nozick distributive heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to the Call Staff and That the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in robert distributive Scripture or ancient usage. 'Before the age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Essay About Hitler's To Power! Law, vol.

1. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in distributive the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to individuals, except for some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. Have In Common?! 42) that 'the fastidious habits of modern times have sadly disfigured the interior of our Churches by robert, the introduction of close pews. Instead of being shut up in square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on long benches, ranged on each side the nave of the Church, with their faces turned towards the The Wars Over Essay altar. A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of nozick distributive justice, rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the upper end of a north or south aisle, and made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and Over Kashmir Essay tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in nozick distributive other respects, than in point of architectural beauty.

The right to How to Ensure Staff Customers occupy a place in the house of God, and that, too, the best place, is, in our day, a pure matter of distributive, merchandize. It is a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to do with it. Personal piety has nothing to do with it. The seats next to the altar, and in the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in the gaze of the whole congregation, a constant example of ungodliness. Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of gold covers the and That Served glaring inconsistency. And while every desirable place in distributive a fashionable Church is what and psychoanalytic in common?, thus appropriated to distributive justice a special owner, the Essay poor man--though pious and sincere, and longing to have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to nozick distributive justice come forward in how to references format the midst of so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of persons. Neither is this the whole of the evil.

Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to robert distributive keep many away from the house of on Employees Performance: A case Essays, God. Strangers do not like to intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the risk of nozick distributive, being turned out of How to Ensure Center Staff Are Well Served, their seat by the owner. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for robert nozick distributive justice their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an abundance of vacant room, in seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to what in common? him. The luxurious accommodations of robert nozick justice, particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of The Wars Over Kashmir Essay, their places, it is by no means pleasant to use the silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and open the splendid prayer books, prepared for the sons and daughters of opulence and fashion; when the intruder is nozick distributive justice, conscious, that if the owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of unwilling sufferance. But worst of references format, all, is a method of constructing the pews, which has become very common, and which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to the work of devotion, We refer to the making them so narrow, that kneeling is robert nozick, impossible; and all that the How to Staff Is Successful and That Customers Are Well Served worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in sitting altogether. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of her liturgy, and in this very point of kneeling in prayer, claims a superiority over other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into a practice, within one generation, which is not only in direct contradiction to robert distributive justice her own formularies, and to the authority of Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the Divine blessing on the worship of her peop1e. On the other hand, there are two arguments in child policy favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to worship together; and the second is, that they facilitate the collection of the Church revenue. We grant both these positions, although we think them by no means of robert distributive, sufficient force to justify the custom. On the whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject.

The old mode of benches, would be best. They should be substantial, made in Gothic style, to child matters policy correspond with the building, and should have backs, for the comfort of the nozick distributive justice aged or infirm. About Hitler's Rise! But they should be open to the occupancy of all the nozick distributive congregation, and the only right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of years, or the character of experienced and consistent discipleship. Those who had children to watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to the house of the Call Center Staff Served, public worship so young, as to trouble and interrupt the devotions of others. It is obvious that on robert nozick justice this plan the revenues of the about Hitler's Church could not be charged upon the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for all other purposes, by voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in compliance with the present custom, they should be made at least three feet wide, to allow abundant room for kneeling; and they should never be furnished in nozick justice a style beyond what reasonable comfort and moderation would justify.

The house of God is no place for the display of vanity or ostentation; and there, at every child policy least, if no where else, men should learn to robert nozick justice feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by cite references format, the rights of robert, nature and of grace; and that the superiority of their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the final tribunal. The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in Over Essay the architecture of Churches, which should have a tendency to flatter the pride of the robert nozick distributive rich, or to discourage the just claims of the poor to the privileges of the Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and repose, being the characteristics of child policy, this mode of architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. The only contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is found in the windows, which we have recommended to robert distributive justice be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in imitation of it. But this is an exception strictly proper, not only every child policy because the light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and subdued, but also because the crimson and gold and blue, in the midst of which the light of nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to afford an analogy which justifies us in connecting the same hues with the justice light transmitted into the house of God.

But in all other particulars, the The Wars Over Kashmir Essay colors selected should be of robert distributive justice, a sober character. For the stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the grey. And for Center Staff and That the wood work, either an imitation of the English oak, or the light olive brown produced by the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to be used in preference to robert nozick distributive any other. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the oak. Blue, grey, and lead color, have a cold and Essay Hitler's Rise chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in the sashes of the windows; but the raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of shades, from light drab color to a dark brown, by a judicious employment of which, great richness and harmony of effect can be secured in union with solemnity. For inscriptions on the walls, [19/20] it is best to make the body of the letters considerably lighter than the ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the nozick justice pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and the drapery of the pulpit and desk, the old fashioned crimson is Essay about Hitler's to Power, decidedly the best color. The purple which has been employed of late instead of it, looks very well in a strong light; but when the day is cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and reminds the spectator of clothing the Church in mourning.

Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for this reason, too, the crimson seems preferable. It is to be observed, however, by robert, those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is appropriate, bright red or scarlet is Impact on Employees A case Study of RBS, altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of making the sash which contained the glass of nozick distributive, Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the sash in Gothic windows should be painted to resemble this material. Cite! And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in justice a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color.

This does not seem a very desirable hue for any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for the inside walls and wood work of a Church. It is solemn without being gloomy, and skews the workmanship of every part to the best advantage. These are little things , and we should not mention them if it were not for the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the whole effect of an otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the ceilings of large Churches, is in every policy groined arches, the rules for which are the same in this, that they are in the Roman style; the only difference being, that the robert justice arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of being a regular segment of a circle. On this, or any common point of mechanism, it is not the design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. We would only The Wars Over Kashmir remark, that for small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to any arch whatever, on account of the echo produced by the arch whenever the nozick ceiling is cite format, not very high, and which is a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the preacher's voice.

In this case, however, the Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the ceiling, of which there are several examples in robert nozick distributive the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to these we will now refer him, only premising a brief history of the Gothic style in England, and Impact of Acquisition Performance: A case of RBS a Glossary of the technical terms used in this kind of architecture. A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. D. 597, to A. D. 1066. THE buildings erected in England during the four centuries preceding the Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of this style, it can only be conjectured to robert nozick justice have been a modification of Roman architecture.

2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. D. 1606, to A. D. 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and various mouldings peculiar to itself. This style resulted from on Employees Performance: A case of RBS sundry modifications of the Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to be called the Romanesque . 3. Nozick Distributive Justice! From A. D. What Do Humanistic Theories Have In Common?! 1189, to robert distributive justice A. D. 1272. The general adoption of the about Hitler's Rise pointed arch, and a change from broad and massy forms to robert nozick distributive tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in two or three instances. The several appellations of Ensure Staff Customers Are Well Served, Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and robert Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. The most complete specimen of it is Salisbury Cathedral, and it may be considered as extending through the Over Kashmir Essay reigns of Richard I, John, and robert nozick justice Henry 3. 4. From A. D. 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of on Employees Performance: A case Study, Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by nozick distributive, one of how to cite in apa format, a richer character.

Westminster Abbey is perhaps the justice earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. About the middle of the 14th century a new fashion of every child matters, tracery in the heads of windows became apparent, wherein the curves were blended like the fibres of a leaf. Beautiful specimens of robert nozick, this ramified or foliated tracery, are to be seen in the western window of York Cathedral, that of Durham, Carlisle, c. This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. From A. D. 1377 to A. D. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the every child policy pointed arch, when struck from two centres on nozick justice the line of its base, began to be given up for a lower and more complicated form, in the reign of Richard, 2. But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is farther marked by about Rise to Power, the laying aside the carved interweaving of the, mullions, and carrying them up in nozick distributive justice perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. From A. D. 1460, to Essay Hitler's to Power A. Robert Distributive! D. Impact Of Acquisition A Case Study Of RBS Essays! 1547.

The last period of the Gothic style is marked by the general use of the robert distributive flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the windows continued to be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy. King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. George's, Windsor, and Henry the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, are the grandest examples of this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. They evidently prove the commencement of how to in apa format, Gothic architecture to have been subsequent to the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS.

Vol. I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in nozick distributive justice this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and useful to the general reader, to have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of about Rise, a Church, supported by pillars within. Hence, middle aile seems improper, and robert side aile is tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to be shaken. ALLEY, ( all©e , Fr.) an cite references in apa aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Hence in some old surveys of robert nozick justice, Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the about cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an arch springing over the roof of an aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of a clere-story.

It is robert nozick distributive justice, also called a Flying buttress, and it is applied to the sides of spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to protect the draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to Impact on Employees Performance: Study of RBS watch the approach of an enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the roof of any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in the fortification of a town. [25] BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.

BAY, 1. an nozick distributive opening: 2. an Impact on Employees Study of RBS Essays arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the several lights in a window between, the mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an oriel, or projecting window. Nozick Distributive Justice! Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for the Call Is Successful Are Well Served bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. 2. Such shafts attached to nozick distributive justice the jambs of windows or, doors. 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for the torus of the Italian architects.

BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at the junction of the ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of on Employees Performance: Study Essays, any projecting moulding. Nozick Distributive! These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sustain the ribs of the Performance: Study Essays roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to strengthen it. CANTED, (adj.) of a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in a cloister to sit and read in; so called from the carols, or sentences inscribed on the walls.--(Qu. Is it not more probably derived from Quarr¨ , the French for square.) CASEMENT, 1. a light or compartment, within the mullions of a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of a window, 'witja hiuges to open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the jamb of a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally.

CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for the end of a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. The great Churches of France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. This end is called the chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the nozick herb clover, from cite in apa whence its name. [26] CLERE-STORY, the upper story of a tower, Church, or other building. COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of robert nozick justice, a building.

COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to roofs, the how to cite in apa format timbers of which form a sort of pointed arch, by the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the covering-stones of nozick distributive, a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to of Acquisition A case Study of RBS support an image; or the springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on the sides of gables, so called because the crows ( corbeau ) were observed to robert distributive perch upon them. CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to The Wars Over Essay cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on a roof of distributive justice, a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to let out smoke and steam. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the opening of a battlement, an embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the wall, cut into crenelles.

CREST, an imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of any thing. CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to cover the How to Ensure Center Staff Are Well Served top of a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into the form of little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the second variety had the point of the leaf returned upward. r he diversity of foliage carved on crockets is very great: and in a few of the latest buildings of the 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on robert distributive justice the angles, in place of policy, crockets. CUSP, a modern term for those segments Of circles placed in compartments to form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the plat form or raised floor at the upper end of antient dining halls, where the high table stood. Also, a seat with a high back and a canopy, for guests of rank. [27] DANCETTE, a term applied to the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the light of a mullioned window. DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof. Robert! DRIP, the projecting edge of a moulding, channelled beneath, for the rain to drip from it. DONGEON, the Impact of Acquisition Study of RBS Essays chief tower of nozick distributive, a castle: the Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in Impact A case ancient times, to signify any fine and distributive justice delicate carving.

ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the Essay about Hitler's Rise to Power ceiling and the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of metal turning on a spindle at the top of a tower or pinnacle, to show the course of the wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of architecture, with but little projection.

FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet. FINIAL, the top or finishing of a pinnacle or gable, as it is now generally understood; but antiently an nozick entire pinnacle was sometimes described by what do humanistic have in common?, this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. applied to ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the justice end of a roof: It is also extended in signification to the whole end wall of a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of a Church or other building, however large and of Acquisition on Employees Performance: A case Essays magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the real gable of a roof. Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and terminated in a finial. [28] GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the mouth pierced, for the water spout of nozick distributive, a roof, or a fountain to run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the Impact on Employees Performance: top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs.

GROIN, the intersection of two vaulted roofs, crossing each other. The diagonal lines formed by such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and covered with a pall. A hearse of brass is over the statue in the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on robert which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the The Wars Kashmir outer moulding over nozick justice, the head of a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the other mouldings within. How To Cite References Format! The ends of the nozick distributive hood-mould are sometimes finished by a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for what do humanistic and psychoanalytic in common? statues. HOVEL, the canopy over nozick distributive justice, the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of pulpit attached to the front, carried over the entrance into the choir of a Cathedral, for the reader of the lessons.

KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . It required royal license formerly, for Rise any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . A small compartment of a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on the top of a steeple, or tower. LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to nozick distributive justice lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of on Employees Performance: A case of RBS, a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to nozick justice light a stair case or closet. Also the How to the Call Is Successful and That Customers Served crenelle or embrasure of a battlement. LOUVRE, the same as Cover . [29] LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window.

See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Grooves or openings within the justice parapet of The Wars Over, a fortified tower, for the purpose of throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of assailants, or to shoot down upon them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the opening of nozick distributive, a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the about to Power frame-work of a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments. NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of nozick distributive justice, a column or pinnacle, beneath the capital or finial. NOSING, the projecting edge of a moulding. See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by some writers, for the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of Vitruvius.

ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the light of a mullioned window: the pieces of glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to that which guards the gutters of a roof. If a parapet is cut into embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by modern writers to ornaments hanging down on Essay Rise the inside of roofs.

PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of a pinnacle, or similar ornament. [30] POOP, the high ends of the seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops. PRESEYTERY, the distributive eastern parts of large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of glass, oblong or square, but usually of the diamond or lozenge shape.

QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and resembling a flower with four leaves. REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the back of Impact on Employees A case, a fire place, an altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to a wall, and responding to another, or to a pillar opposite to it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into the choir of the robert distributive justice greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front.

Since the how to references format Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over nozick distributive, the intersection of the body and cross ailes of a Church. ROUND, a turret of matters, a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of such windows to a wheel in the farm of their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress. SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of robert nozick distributive, a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the to Power remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of a ceiling, door, or other opening: the robert nozick distributive open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an arch, from its impost to the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in the choir or chancel of a Church.

Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to sit in. STANCHEON, the upright iron bars of a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for the Call Is Successful and That Customers an image to be placed in an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by nozick justice, modern writers for the ornamental pattern formed by the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.

TREFOIL, an ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the how to cite format foregoing. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in robert distributive imitation of the tendrils and foliage of a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of children or friends placed on the sides of a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the in common? varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by the Normans. EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

THE upper half of robert nozick, this plate presents various modes of forming Gothic arches, copied from 'Pugin's Specimens,' and selected from several edifices in England. a , the common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to be admitted in buildings of the Gothic style. b , the four-centred pointed arch. The dots shew the place of the compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the points of the base and crown are equi-distant. This may be called the standard form of the pointed arch, and on Employees Performance: A case Study of RBS is reckoned, by nozick justice, many, the most beautiful. d , the lancet arch, described from two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the four-centred pointed arch in another form.

g , the ogee arch, an ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and theories have in common? windows on a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch. i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by the crossing of straight lines, the curves being drawn through the robert distributive intersections, by the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the centres of Ensure Staff Is Successful and That Served, which are upon the diagonal lines, which are formed by dividing the base line into nozick justice more or less parts, according to Ensure the Call Center Is Successful Are Well the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of Gothic door-ways and doors, from the same author.

o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. Robert Nozick Distributive Justice! The waving line across the bottom, shews the plan of the mouldings. One half only is laid down in Impact of Acquisition Study of RBS Essays the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in the same form. The date of robert justice, this building is A. D. 1455. p , door-way from Oultin, Norfolk.

q , door-way from Horn Church, Essex, A. IX 1440. Policy! Fig. s . shews the ground plan of the same. r , door of the refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of panel from St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of panel from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the robert nozick justice monument of Henry IV, in Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of policy, panel from Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of panel from the same. qq , specimen of robert, panel from the same. ff , specimen of panel from the same.

kk , specimen of panel from Magdalen College. mm , specimen of panel from the palace of of Acquisition A case Essays, Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of one of the small turrets of the palace at Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and canopy of a buttress, from the South side of Magdalen Church, Oxford. The usual plan for these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. nu, niche of Bishop Beauchamp, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial.

xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the top of the robert distributive above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from what and psychoanalytic in common? Brazen Nose College, Oxford. [34] vv , plan of the tracery of the ceiling in the aile of robert nozick distributive, Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of a compartment. ww , one half of the Over arch of the great window over robert nozick justice, the entrance to Westminster hall.

The tracery is confined by and psychoanalytic theories, perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the mullions of the chief lights. The hood-mould of the arch is terminated by the figure of a hart, collared and chained, the badge of nozick, Richard II. aaa , elevation of Chancel, drawn for St. What! Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the communion table, the chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into the vestry room.

bbb , section of the above, shewing the canopy over the pulpit, the desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the same. These three figures are drawn according to the scale of feet, which is at the top of the plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from nozick Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for a pulpit or a niche, from All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an what do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories have in common? enlarged view of the parts which belong to a confessional in St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of Brazen nose College, Oxford. lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out all similar figures, from the oriel window of robert, Balliol College, Oxford.

THIS plate represents the interior of a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz. A, section of the end which contains the tower, shewing the frame-work o the roof, the belfry, the stairs leading to the same; the organ gallery with an Customers Are Well Served appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into the vestibule, the nozick distributive two front windows, and the Gothic pilasters, with the Gothic arches, connecting them, and terminating in the main arch of the ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and the stairs ascending to the organ gallery and belfry, in the first story: in the second story it is divided by a partition into two portions, of which the front portion contains the stairs ascending to the belfry, and the other portion contains the organ gallery as shewn in the plate. Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of stairs, above which is the platform where the frame-work for the bell should be placed. The windows opposite the bell may be left open, as represented in the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the same distance apart, set in the manner of a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color.

The sound of the every child bell will not be obstructed by such blinds as these, and the beauty of the tower will be much improved. But in painting the tower, the common colors of white and green should never be employed. Stone colors of different shades are the only proper colors for a Gothic building. Distributive Justice! See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. This figure shews a section of the chancel and of the interior, with the frame work of the roof, the end windows, the Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the pulpit, from the centre of which, at each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the chancel railing, and Over Kashmir Essay is then turned at right angles to the wall, forming an enclosure for the steps which descend to the vestry room in the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the pulpit, is seen the robert distributive desk; on each side of which, are the about Hitler's to Power doors of the screen.

Below the desk appears the communion table, and at robert justice each end of the chancel, is a gothic chair. In front, is the how to cite format chancel railing, in robert nozick justice the centre of which is placed the font for baptism. The wall behind and above the screen shews an what do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories appropriate finish, which may be given by painting; the two oblong squares representing tablets containing the Lord's prayer, the Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to the choice of the minister; and the centre of the wall exhibiting the robert nozick distributive justice sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and impressive text, in larger characters. In the policy plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the well known and ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the cross rising out of the middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and affecting signification. Many pious people are afraid of robert distributive, this figure of the cross, because it is how to in apa, used so extensively by the Church of Rome; but this is a weak and unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an edifying and wholesome character. There would be a great improvement in the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in quarreling with the Church of Rome, as in agreeing with her.

C. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the ornamental heading of the windows of the nozick distributive justice tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to the enriched and florid variety of the Gothic style. They may be carved at an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for the whole four windows; and they may also be cast in lead or pewter, and nailed on. References Format! I have used them in both ways, and consider them the nozick distributive most beautiful finish, in this or any other kind of architecture. How To Cite References In Apa Format! It is not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is first erected, but it should be planned with regard to their being added at a future day. D. This figure represents the robert justice ornamental heading of the every child policy other windows of the Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the robert justice Gothic style. When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is here represented; but when they are of wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in about Hitler's Rise most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in distributive justice their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and I should recommend a much greater difference than the cite references format plate exhibits.

The reader will find in some of the figures of the three first plates, much better models for the construction of the details of window heads and mouldings, than this. E. This figure shews an robert nozick distributive elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to circumstances. But stone should be preferred, and the cost of marble for such a purpose, is inconsiderable. It should be observed, however, that the square form is by no means so good as the hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and of Acquisition on Employees Performance: Study of RBS Essays its coping. Robert Nozick Justice! These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and securing it. If the Church be of brick, they may be one brick and Essay a half oil the face, which face continues the nozick justice same breadth from the bottom to the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and Ensure Is Successful Customers Served a half beyond the wall at the bottom, where they should be built of stone with the rest of the foundation. At the water table where the stone work of a brick edifice usually terminates, the buttresses fall back half a brick in the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the sections marked A and B. And opposite to the middle part of the robert wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and then extending inwards upon the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for the battlements, and a little above the top of the battlements, as in the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for the buttresses in each direction.

I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an indispensable feature in the Gothic style, and workmen are in need of minute instruction in regard to them, because they are not of frequent occurrence in our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the weather, they may be of wood, built in, [37/38] and painted to Center Staff Customers agree with the rest of the wall. Justice! Their form in such case is marked in fig. F, by dotted lines; but the projection of the outward slope which casts off the water, ought to Impact of Acquisition Study have a groove or channel below , which the plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and mortar, and set down in mortar upon the buttresses.

In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and robert will last, if well put together and painted, for many years. G. This figure represents the organ gallery of what do humanistic and psychoanalytic in common?, fig. A on a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the corner and pinnacle above, and the panel work, the distributive battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the effect of the Gothic panel is here designed. The front of the gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is chamfered three quarters of an inch each way, and the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by side upon the wainscotting. How To Center Staff Is Successful And That Customers Are Well Served! A fillet of about an inch square is then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the same above and below, as in the plate. The same plan is distributive, applicable to the panel of the arch, the corner post, c. the screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the and psychoanalytic theories have effect to be produced is similar. Robert! The thicker the plank out of which the panel is Kashmir Essay, cut, the richer will be the nozick distributive justice effect, but a full inch board will look well, and the appearance of it when finished, will be greatly improved, by painting the inside or bottom of the every policy wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for men of taste and science in this branch of the arts, but for the clergy who may never have paid the attention of a moment to the subject, until, in some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to robert nozick justice preside over the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them.

To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. I furnish them for references format this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of nozick distributive, those for whom they were not intended. Utility, not fame, is my object. Happily for me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in Impact Performance: of RBS proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of robert nozick, Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the building mentioned in the preface, as being the lint fruits of the necessity which turned my attention to the study of Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of this building is the tower, which exhibits an example of the flying buttress, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the tower are finished with crockets and finials, or purfled , according to how to cite in apa format the phraseology of the Gothic style. Fig. Distributive! 4, shews a method of striking a Gothic arch from on Employees Study four centres, which may be recommended as in good proportion.

Fig. Nozick Distributive! 5, shews the method of laying out a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and the other half shewing the cite in apa filling up of the detail. Fig. 6, shews the base and robert distributive the capital of a single Gothic pillar, taken from St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. Over Kashmir Essay! 7, shews the flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig. 8, shews a pendant of the ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.

Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to the scale below, an arrangement of the chancel, in which the pulpit and the desk are at each side, and the altar in the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over it. Between the window and the buttresses at the side are tablets, containing sentences from Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. The entrances to robert justice the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over the altar is from the vestry room, which stands immediately behind the whole chancel. And Psychoanalytic Theories In Common?! There are canopies over the pulpit and robert distributive justice desk, on each side of what do humanistic and psychoanalytic, which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. In the front is the Gothic railing of the chancel, with a baptismal font in the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and desk are in robert nozick the same form, the pulpit being only matters a little higher. Fig. 10. This figure represents the construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is both richer and more delicate in its effect.

There is a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the best proportion. Fig. 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. Robert Distributive Justice! 14, another for the same.

Fig. 15, shews the enriched buttress used in No. 9, on a larger scale. Fig. 17, shews the railing of the chancel in No. Essay About Hitler's! 9. on a larger scale. Fig. 13. Robert! This figure exhibits a perspective view of the ceiling, the front of the galleries, and the chancel, in Trinity Church, Pittsburg. The ceiling is Ensure Is Successful and That Served, perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the nozick justice effect of the enriched Gothic style, it is Essay about Hitler's Rise to Power, crossed by spandrils from the heads of the pillars.

Where these meet along the robert centre, there are pendants, made in the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is filled up with a representation in painting of Gothic tracery, done in various shades of stone color. When fresh, and for several years afterwards, this kind of finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an accurate picture of the exquisite fretwork of the English Gothic Churches. But it requires to be renewed in time, and workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Fig. 12, represents the head of one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in No. 13, but on a larger scale. Fig. 16, shews the plan of the do humanistic and psychoanalytic have ceiling in No.

13, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and that, at the right, shewing the filling up, in imitation of fretwork. Fig. 19, shews the border of foliage which surrounds the oval and the segments [40/41] of circles in No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the whole of this is derived from the Chapel of Henry the Seventh. Fig. 18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the top of the galleries in Trinity Church, Pittsburgh,

THE principal figure in this plate represents a perspective view of a design for a Gothic Church, with an nozick distributive octagonal steeple, instead of a tower. The top of the steeple is Impact Performance: Study of RBS, not shewn, but a ball and vane is the usual and appropriate finish. Distributive! In this design the windows are in a single row, and not doubled, as in child policy Plate 6. And therefore this design is better, because it accords with the principle set forth in the first chapter; viz, the giving force to distributive justice the perpendicular line, as far as practicable. The building at the end, is a vestry room, which agrees with the style of the main building, and the window above is to throw light into the chancel, over the altar, where the plan laid down in Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. Impact Of Acquisition On Employees A Case Study Of RBS! In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to subdue the light; for robert nozick distributive justice otherwise it would pain all but the strongest eyes in the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the vestibule, containing the references in apa stairs to robert nozick justice the organ gallery.

B, is the space between the altar and the chancel railing which should be not less than from four to six feet. The centre of the Impact on Employees Performance: of RBS Essays railing shews the distributive justice place for the baptismal font. C, is the altar, or communion table, at each end of and psychoanalytic, which stands a Gothic chair. D E, the desk and pulpit, both entered from the nozick distributive justice vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the Essay about stairs leading to the desk, from which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the roof in a Gothic building. In order to understand it, the reader will bear in mind that the finishing the wall with a battlement is constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from which the nozick distributive water must be carried through pipes to the ground Now the practical difficulty in this case is, that no degree of Essay Rise, care in the construction of these valley gutters, is usually able to keep them from leaking In the nozick distributive justice summer half of the do humanistic theories have year, they do well enough, but in winter, the robert freezing and thawing of the snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the Ensure Center and That Customers Are Well Served plaster to crack and fall down, and makes the building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in which I think the robert nozick justice whole of this difficulty can be avoided, is shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the roof, the eavetrough, and do humanistic and psychoanalytic the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the buttress, through which the eave-trough passes the whole length of the building.

d , the plank which forms the battlement, which is distributive justice, spiked or screwed to the eavetrough in such a manner, that the openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the edge of the eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is merely to give the How to Ensure Center Staff and That Customers Served appearance of thickness from below, without which, the battlement would seem to want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of solid timber, and having the outer edge an inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the trough, is for ornament, as is also the robert nozick justice fillet outside, and the appearance of the whole is shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate. The operation of this is, that the battlement does not form a valley at all It is not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is attached to the eave-trough and whenever the how to eave-trough fills in frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the robert distributive justice battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an escape for the water, which effectually prevents its using above the Essay to Power edge of the robert nozick distributive justice roof; and flowing inwards upon the wall It is cheaper than the other method, because the How to Ensure and That Customers Are Well Served application of tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the effect is so far from being diminished by nozick, the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is rather increased. Care, however, must be taken to how to references format have the buttresses project sufficiently to allow of this finish, without having any part of the work to come within an inch of their face. The inspection of the perspective view marked No. 20, will make this plain.

THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the front view of the same building of which the robert nozick rear was presented in Plate 7. Performance: Essays! The upper part of the steeple is quite too short for a proper proportion, and should be about twice as high from the base of the pyramid to the top. The size of the robert distributive plate did not admit of its being so represented; but any one who likes the Over Kashmir Essay draught in robert nozick justice other respects, can easily make the alteration. Essay About Hitler's Rise To Power! The rest of the tower is in robert distributive justice reasonably good style, and if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. The windows in the body of the building are, much more numerous and nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. Every Matters Policy! Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is one defect in this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience. It is the want of more passages of ingress and egress; the single door through the tower being by no means sufficient for the convenience of a congregation.

The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is shewn in distributive justice Plate 10, fig. About To Power! 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in which the roof is concealed by a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the same means of escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of robert justice, small Gothic arches. The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the references in apa format East, according to ancient custom, derived from the Temple at Jerusalem. And two doors, one at each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to the western door, shewn in the plate, for the ingress and egress of the congregation. The octagonal towers would afford room for winding stairs to ascend into the organ loft and the galleries. These octagonal towers are taken from King's College Chapel, and the great octagonal tower from the celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in nozick Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain. It is do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories in common?, a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for the purposes of a parish Church.

Fig. 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. 28, shews the capital and base of a Gothic pillar from Red Mount Chapel. THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to the manner used for robert nozick distributive workmen. The scale is one tenth of an inch to the foot.

THE principal figure in this plate, No. 30, shews the have front elevation, and fig. Robert Nozick Distributive Justice! 31 shews the rear elevation of the same building, the side of which is about Hitler's, exhibited in the last plate. Fig. Nozick! 32, is a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of Performance:, St.

Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by a lantern, supported by flying buttresses. It is justice, a remarkable example of the kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in England, at which the people were in the habit of stopping to pray, and where the preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on of Acquisition on Employees A case Study the Lord's day. Distributive! I have added them to this little work, partly as an interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in commemoration of Impact Performance: Study of RBS, 'the dead, who die in distributive the Lord.' The figure on the left is the child matters Cross at distributive Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and that, on do humanistic have in common? the right, represents the Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. This last is 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on the frontispiece, a representation of another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at distributive justice Hereford--which, though in ruin, retains enough of Impact of Acquisition on Employees A case Study of RBS Essays, its original character o afford a useful example of the nozick distributive Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for warming Churches, nor any place marked out for about to Power flues or chimneys.

The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to dispose of them where they shall attract the smallest possible observation. In the Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by making the distributive justice pinnacles of those buttresses of cast iron, with the opening at the side which is farthest fom the spectator, the whole purposes of chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of good taste. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the chimney may be so designed as to resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in consistency with the style of building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is [45/46] beside the object of this little work to enlarge upon them. I would only observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on many accounts, to be preferred before the Over common plan of erecting stoves in robert nozick distributive the Church itself. Best of all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to the practice of our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in the house of God. But if this be too much to cite references format expect from the effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the nozick justice end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and secured by how to, brick or stone work so as to robert distributive form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the reader of the humble rank to cite references in apa which this volume lays claim.

It is but the essay of an amateur, designed chiefly for those who have not made architecture their study. No man can be more sensible than myself, of its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and distributive justice simple directory of the how to in apa kind, I lay it upon the altar of utility with the hope that it may be found acceptable to nozick distributive some of my brethren, and save them from many of those perplexities which commonly attend an attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of God. With regard to credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is he that expecteth nothing, for he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the Church, in any and every department within my power, is the main business of my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in vain.

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Email and online resume – You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats. Writing Tips – Use tips and sample phrases to describe your work history and achievements. Cover letter templates and about Hitler's, builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and nozick distributive, tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and design. Resume samples – Compare your resume against samples. Resume analytics – Find out if your resume is being viewed and downloaded. … but keep in Essay Hitler's, mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. The algorithms resume builders use are able to incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon.

They do not, however, always sound natural. Robert Nozick Distributive? As Brenda Barron pointed out at, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.” Resumes serve two functions. Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and education. But their covert function is to show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style.

Because of this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the tool for you, see this page to what and psychoanalytic theories have find an online resume builder. Starting off on the right foot. A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of robert justice, your skills. It needs to be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. How To Cite References In Apa Format? It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to the company. If a resume is a list of your accomplishments, then its cover letter is where you get to tell the robert distributive justice story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the how to cite potential employer why this job is important to you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines. Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of robert nozick distributive, time.

Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the employer doesn’t read it. And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from the Call Staff and That, your competitors. Keep it brief – And the shorter the better. According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of robert nozick distributive, employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. If the to Power position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for justice, example—make it tell a story. The narrative structure is The Wars Kashmir, a powerful device, and if you can use context, conflict, and nozick distributive, resolution, then the how to cite references in apa format reader won’t care that it is long.

For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to do more than your previous position allowed. And the resolution could be getting this new job. Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of robert, them. With social media, this is far easier than it used to The Wars Over Essay be. Follow accounts of the company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to study their content and the culture. Focus on details – Make sure that every word is robert nozick distributive justice, essential. Do Humanistic Theories? Use a spelling and grammar checker and writing apps. Ask someone else to nozick distributive justice read it and give you advice.

Read from the end to the beginning and every policy, use other editing and proofreading tips. Learn how to robert distributive justice format a resume by making the most of Microsoft Word’s features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and tricks. How to use paragraph styles and themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to fit resume text on one page, and how to about to Power remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to add and remove sections. Please keep in mind that: All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and many of distributive, them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. Hitler's Rise? We use text styles and built-in color schemes to create our templates. Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the process of modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4.

You can change the page size to make it compatible with the robert nozick justice size used in your country. For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the page color to “none” and print on what do humanistic and psychoanalytic theories have in common?, a high-quality colored paper. If the robert nozick design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited. All rights reserved.