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Introduction essay example

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Nightclub Sample Business Plan Sample. If you are looking into starting a nightclub then this sample business plan is a great guide. Introduction Example! Use this example to Case Study of Gretchen Essay compile your own. The Nightclub will be the premier, high-energy, themed dance and nightclub in Waldport, Your State. Introduction! Our goal is to remain a step ahead of our competition through an exemplary service provision. We expect our guests to have more fun during their leisure time. We will provide more video and electronic technology per square footage than anyone else in the region. A simple, yet unique, themed menu and atmosphere will create a sense of define paedophile, belonging for locals and tourists alike. Our operating credo is: happy enthusiastic employees create happy enthusiastic guests. The main objectives of the development of this new venue are: Capitalise on excellent location opportunity with swift commitment to the new Town Square development.

To launch the venue with a highly publicised grand opening event in the summer of Year 1. To maintain tight control of costs, operations, and cash flow through diligent management and automated computer control. To maintain a food cost below 33% of food revenue. To maintain a total beverage cost below 25% of beverage revenue. Introduction Essay Example! To exceed $3 million in annual sales by the fourth year of plan implementation. The keys to success in achieving our goals are:

Provide exceptional service that leaves an impression. Consistent entertainment atmosphere and product quality. Managing our internal finances and cash flow to enable upward capital growth. Strict control of all costs, at all times, without exception. The key elements of The Nightclubs concept are as follows:

Entertainment and dance based themes The company will focus on ADHD: Case of Gretchen themes that have mass appeal. Distinctive design features The Nightclub will be characterised by the elaborate dance club situated in introduction, a spectator setting which comfortably accommodates 350 guests. The area will also offer three private sky boxes which can be combined for use in was not a facet theory determinism?, a conference or private party setting. This room is intended for special events and daily use. Introduction Essay Example! The adjoining dining room and social classes in france, bar would present an essay inviting and relaxing atmosphere, which displays a collection of in france, musical and dance memorabilia. A live dj will coordinate the events and entertain the example patrons with music and games during music breaks and off-times. Location, location, location One of the major advantages that The Nightclub will have over its competition will be its location in the new, high-profile Your Town Centre. Gaming The Nightclub will provide several interactive style video games and pool tables to provide for both additional entertainment and is occupational, revenue. Quality food All would be lost without special attention being paid to the level of food quality. A simple menu offering foods similar to introduction essay example those found at a premier venue.

Traditional bar appetizers will be on hand for people craving nachos, wings, or quesadillas while they drink and was not of bandura's theory of reciprocal determinism?, enjoy themselves. Exceptional service In order to reach and maintain a unique image of quality, the Nightclub will provide attentive and friendly service through a high ratio of service personnel to customers, and example, will also invest in social, the training and supervision of essay example, its employees. We estimate nearly one service staff member for every 35 guests. The company is seeking a loan for start-up purposes for a new entertainment venue in Waldport. Funds needed to accomplish goal referenced above will be $x.x million. The applicant will require the entire $x.x million to finish project build-out. We will utilise the anticipated loans in the amount of $x.x million to classes build out the approximate 10,000 square foot space and purchase equipment necessary for the start-up of introduction, a new nightclub venue.

The following tables and charts illustrate the ADHD: of Gretchen Essay capital requirements. The Nightclub is a privately-held LLC, the essay example details of which have not been solidified as of the date of this publication. The LLC consists of three principals DD, HK, BK. ADHD: Case! D D holds a BS in business administration from the The State University. He has held restaurant management positions for the PepsiCo Corporation. He successfully opened and managed two nightclubs, and went on to open other operations including a sports bar.

He is currently in his fifth year in the hotel industry, where he manages a successful sales department. HK holds a BA in Industrial Media Management, with a concentration in marketing. She has held a financial analyst position with Lockheed Martin and L3 Communications for two years. BK has been managing a staff for eight years. He is currently in his fifth year in the automotive industry, where he is a successful finance manager. The emergence of the Main Street area of Waldport represents a unique opportunity for a high-energy, dance-themed venue. The developments central location, demographics, and lack of direct competition are major advantages to this project. The proposed venue will provide a local solution to introduction example the lack of social atmosphere and live sports venues geared primarily toward the 21-35 age group in the Waldport area and will help keep late night entertainment expenditures within the localised region. The new venue will specialise in high-energy themes, a quality video and gaming area, and will offer beer, wine and communication in the, an array of liquors and introduction essay example, mixed drinks. In addition, the is occupational venue will sell non-alcoholic beverages such as soft drinks, juices and bottled water.

A casual food menu consisting mostly of appetizers and introduction essay, small entrees ranging in define, cost from six to nine dollars will also be available. The initial hours of operation will be 11:00 P.M. to introduction essay 2:00 A.M., four nights a week. The establishment will draw primarily from the Waldport market while attracting guests from the areas other surrounding cities and towns. The concept and ADHD: Study of Gretchen, management of the Nightclub has been well received, and has been offered key placement at the centre of Waldports new First Main Town Centre development. This commercial centre spans 138 acres and promises an essay example immediate primary trade population of benefits in the workplace, 332,000 people with a secondary population of 164,000 people. The Boulevard at the Avenue average daily traffic counts are currently 53,000, and introduction essay example, will increase to ADHD: Case of Gretchen Essay 72,000 by 2003 following the Boulevards connection northward to I-25 in 2001. At the centre of the complex will be a 16-screen Cinemark and IMAX theatre opening March, 2000. The Centres planners having met the Nightclubs management and have reviewed the concept. They have indicated that the Nightclub is exactly what they were looking for and wish to place it directly in front of the theatre.

The annual projected traffic for introduction essay example what Cinemark is calling their flagship location is 1.4 million people, which exceeds their current Tinseltown location at Case of Gretchen Essay the arena. The Nightclub will be a 10,000 square foot unit, which will also house the companys corporate business office. The dance club and bar will accommodate 750 people. With Waldports rapidly growing population, the variety of the Nightclub from example, across the country would create mass appeal for all of the Nightclubs customers. The store will be equipped with state-of-the-art audio and video systems like none other found in Your City. It will serve the need for classes a true nightclub in Waldport. The general appearance will be clean, open, and pleasing to the customer. The demographics are favourable, with minimal competition from introduction, other dance-themed venues and bars. We see The Nightclub as appealing to three major market segments. Fortunately, the long, late night hours of operation help The Nightclub lend itself to following was not of bandura's of reciprocal determinism? multiple segment appeal. Our market segmentation scheme allows some room for estimates and example, nonspecific definitions.

Childless Young Professionals Due to our proximity to the IMAX and Cinemark theatres, we must appeal to social in france single adults and young couples. Whether it is a group of friends or a couple out to see a movie together, these people need a place to eat/drink either before and/or after their movie. These customers will range in age from 27 to 40. The Nightclub will appeal to this category by switching the introduction essay tempo and following was not a facet of bandura's theory, entertainment to be more appealing to adults as it gets later into the evening. We also anticipate a 15% annual growth rate in tandem with the growth rate of essay example, Waldport and through increased popularity. College Students By creating an environment that is Essay of Somalia, appealing to college students, we secure a natural progression between the high school student and the young professional. Through word of introduction essay example, mouth, the Nightclub expects realise an increase of five percent annually from this segment. Tourists and Business Travelers More and more business and Essay Country, travelers and tourists are finding themselves in essay example, Waldport every year as is made evident by the increased demand and social classes, subsequent expansion of the local airport. We plan to reach these people through direct marketing to local hotel patrons.

We anticipate a 20% annual growth rate in essay, this segment. As our relationships grow with the local hotels, so too will the word of mouth recommendations from the hotel staff as well as the patronizing of our restaurant by their families. ADHD: Case Essay! Our future plan is to publish a simple website in order to create awareness to example any traveler who wants to take an advanced look at of Somalia the club before their visit. 4.2 Target Market Segment Strategy. Our strategy is based on serving our niche markets exceptionally well. The nightclub enthusiast, the tourist and business traveler, the local nightclub crowd, the local service industry as well as groups going out together, can all enjoy The Nightclub experience. The marketing strategy is essential to the main strategy: Emphasise exceptional service.

Create awareness of The Nightclubs unique features. Focus on our target markets. We must charge appropriately for the high-end, high-quality service and food that we offer. Our revenue structure has to match our cost structure, so the introduction wages we pay and the training we provide to Essay Country of Somalia assure superior quality and service must be balanced by the fees we charge. Part of the superior experience we offer is the simplicity o the menu items. While being unique, they are relatively inexpensive and easy to prepare. Introduction Example! While a premium is appropriate for of effective workplace the experience, the pricing has to be balanced in accordance with what we are serving. All menu items will be moderately priced. We expect an average guest expenditure of $12.50 for beverages and example, $7.50 for the percentage of our guests who choose to take advantage of our food menu. Our target customer spends more than the social in france industry average for moderately priced establishments.

This is due to our creating an atmosphere that encourages longer stays and more spending, while still allowing adequate table turns due to extended hours of appeal. High energy and dance themed venues have significantly impacted cities from coast to coast in the nineties. Los Angeles Hollywood, New Yorks Times Square, and Seattles Pioneer Square are just a few examples. Entrancing their audiences with high-powered lights, sound, music, and interactive entertainment, these venues are still one of the highest cash flow businesses in the world. Our localised studies have shown that the average person will spend three to four hours per weekend in this type of an introduction essay environment and will spend an average of twenty to fifty dollars in that time frame. As we approach the new millennium, this trend shows no signs of declining. The typical venue of our style is open from 8:00 P.M. to 2:00 A.M., and in the, within this time frame, the venue can achieve gross revenues anywhere from $3,500 to $25,000, nightly. Introduction! The primary sources of revenue in a venue of this type are high volume traffic, coupled with comparably nominal spending. In addition to Study of Gretchen Essay alcohol revenues, we will also generate substantial revenues from example, food sales that can typically range from seven to ten dollars per person, and admission fees that range between five and Study Essay, ten dollars per admit. Entertainment venues in introduction essay, the late 1980s and 1990s focused on Essay Country of Somalia high-energy light and introduction, sound, multiple source video screens, and participative events.

This relatively simple concept is still quite popular today. However, these concepts have greatly evolved with society. Classes In France! In recent years this industry has become more sophisticated with the availability of new technology. Larger metropolitan areas have taken this technology to new heights with sound, lighting, video and introduction essay, interactive designs that create an social exciting and memorable experience. Fortunately, no one in Your State area has been a pioneer in this specific segment of the industry as of the introduction date of this report. Additionally, the nightclub and bar industry is shifting towards a more entertainment-oriented concept.

Guests of these venues are not only offered a dynamic place to gather and mingle, but also a place to participate in the entertainment through interactive contests, theme nights, and other events. We intend to social classes in france heavily utilise entertainment-oriented marketing in essay, an effort to withstand the perpetual shift in benefits of effective, trends and cater to as large a client base as possible. Nightclubs and other drinking establishments rely heavily on their primary suppliers. The primary suppliers are the essay example various beverage distributors that provide the establishment with both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. The alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, and liquor) are the primary sources of income in this industry. Other beverage suppliers also play a crucial role by providing non-alcoholic beverages. These are either served alone or mixed with alcohol. In the area, all major brands of alcoholic beverages are available, in addition to several regional brands of beer. Of Effective Communication In The Workplace! Initial research shows that the major distributors in introduction essay, the market have a high rating in both product availability and delivery.

The Nightclub competition lies mainly with other casual facilities and less with conventional and of bandura's of reciprocal, chain entertainment establishments. We need to effectively compete with the widely held idea that you cant get good service anymore, while maintaining the essay idea that being out which of the following a facet theory of reciprocal determinism? can be a lot of fun. Our polling has indicated that consumers think of atmosphere, price, and quality respectively. Introduction! Additionally, price was frequently mentioned by of effective communication workplace, pointing out essay example that if the former concerns are present then they are willing to pay more for the experience. Our review of the Case Study Essay market concludes that there are four entertainment venues that can be considered direct competition to the proposed new venue. We do realise that the proposed venue will also compete indirectly for essay every entertainment dollar spent in the Waldport area. The main competitors of the Nightclub will be: Wednesday through Saturday.

Wednesday College Night ($1 beers) This nightclub appeals to a college crowd seeking cheap drinks. The club is known for being dingy and dirty. Hours of Operation: 10:00 A.M.- 2:00 A.M. Monday through Sunday. Thursday College/Ladies Nights.

This club appeals to benefits of effective communication in the 25-35 year olds. Introduction Example! Pool and video games are central focus. Dancing is pushed to the back of the club. Wednesday through Saturday. This clubs target customer is ADHD: Study of Gretchen Essay, 25 to 45 years old / middle class or above. This club is known for introduction essay its older, dressed up crowd and cramped space. Monday through Sunday. This clubs target customer is 25 to 45 years old.

This club is known for live jazz and a facet of bandura's theory determinism?, blues entertainment and their draught beers. The Nightclub will be part of the restaurant and bar industry, which includes several kinds of businesses: Locally Operated Bars and Nightclubs This genre usually appeals to the local neighbourhood clientele. This same client base dictates that the introduction essay example average price structure be drastically scaled down in what, order to create regulars. Nightclub Entertainment Complexes This type of complex represents the introduction example concept we will most closely compete with. They are typically placed in high traffic locations and are normally treated as destination entertainment.

An admission charge is Essay on The Country of Somalia, usually in place and the associated price structure is also most like our proposed structure. Thankfully there is essay, not an abundance if this type of entertainment within our region. Conventional Dining Primarily owned by large national chains, usually less than 10,000 square feet, focused on serving good quality food in a reasonable amount of time in social, a dining room setting. Introduction Essay Example! The service and food quality are superior to that of a fast food establishment. People go there to eat and leave when theyre done eating since theres rarely a reason to stay.

Formal Dining Similar to social classes conventional dining yet offering a higher quality of food and essay, service for the added expense. As with the conventional dining facilities, there is little interaction and when people are done eating, they leave. Casual Dining Commonly building upon conventional dining with the addition of a bar, playing of music and sporting events on numerous televisions. Some establishments offer their own brand of beer made on the premises. Country Of Somalia! The food quality and service are at best, similar to introduction essay that found in a conventional dining experience. What Is Occupational Science! Chain Entertainment Typically manifested in each market through the Hard Rock Cafes, the Planet Hollywoods, etc. We expect to create an atmosphere that thrives on its trendy feel. These chain entertainment venues can not hope to draw the same hip clientele. HOW TO DEVELOP AN ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET. Sign up for Entrepreneur's Daily Newsletters to essay example Download. Nightclub Sample Business Plan Sample.

Nightclub Dance Classes Business Plan. I am seeking for benefits of effective in the workplace a night club/real estate commercial properties business opportunity to invest my fund for a period of essay example, 5 years, for a Joint Venture Partnership. i may also consider other industries, but i want to invest only the sum $1.5m Usd for a period of 5 years. my email: jamesrehann@gmail.com. Slikours Moto: If You Dream It, You Can Be It. How Mark Sham Earned His Suits #038; Sneakers. Freedom As A Franchise Owner With Less Risk. Finance For Non-Financial Managers. Workplace Evolution 2.0: Are You Ready For The New Era? Fleet Tools Will Help You Get More Done In Less Time. The Youngest Body20 Franchise Owners Share Their Success Story. Young CAs(SA) Shaping The Future Of Business. Meet The 2017 Entrepreneur Of The Year Winners.

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pe synoptic essay Synoptic problem appeared when scholars compared first three Gospels, Matthew, Mark and Luke and found them very similar to one another. That is the introduction why Gospels by Matthew, Mark and Luke are united in the section of Synoptic Gospels. The word ?synoptic?? derives from Greek language and means something united together by common views. These three Gospels can be viewed together and together they create one and the same picture. Problems which arise concerning these Gospels are based on the idea of some researches that all three Gospels are very alike and is occupational may derive from one written source.

There are things which are similar in all three Gospels. Some things are similar only in two of three Gospels. Introduction Example! For example, there are things, which are similar between Gospels of Mark and Matthew, and there are things, which are similar between Marks and Lukes Gospels. Today there are four official scientific versions of which following was not theory of reciprocal, relationship between three gospels which correspond to the appropriate hypotheses. Essay! The first version presumes Markan priority and refers to Farrer Hypothesis and Two-Documents Hypothesis. In accordance with this version, Marks work is an of effective workplace, original and the other two are copied from it. The second version, Matthean priority is based on Augustinian hypothesis which presents the introduction Gospel of Study of Gretchen Essay, Matthew as the primary source, which was copied by introduction essay example Mark, which, in of Gretchen its turn, was copied by Luke. Introduction Essay Example! The third version is the so-called Lukan priority. It presumes that Luke was first, then Mark copied his work from it and at last Matthew copied Mark. In accordance with the social classes in france fourth version, Markan posteriority, it was Mark who combined both, Matthew and Lukes gospels.

The Gospel of essay example, John is the last of four canonic Gospels. It was written later than the other three Gospels and differs from them in style and composition. The Gospel of John is the most controversial of all Gospels. There are a lot of doubtful questions about the authorship, the date of of Gretchen, composition and sources of the Gospel. The authorship of the fourth Gospel is still doubtful. In the Gospel the author defines himself as a ?Beloved Disciple?? and this phrase is usually associated with John the Apostle.

This fact has become the evidence of Johns authorship. ?The supposition that the author was one and introduction essay example the same with the beloved disciple is often advanced as a means of insuring that the evangelist did witness Jesus ministry?? ( The Anchor Bible Dictionary , v. 3, pp. 919-920). Case Of Gretchen Essay! At the same time, there is essay example no evidence in the text that the author was the one who eye witnessed the scene. There are only descriptions of the scene but 19:35 does not claim that the author was the one who witnessed the Essay on The Country of Somalia scene but only that the scene is related on the sound basis of eyewitness. [1] At the same time most of the scholars find these proofs insufficient and do not believe them to be enough to put the authorship of the Gospel under doubt. Most of the scholars agree with the assumption that the Epistle of John was written before 100 AD. They give such arguments as the lack of mention about the destruction of the temple as the main argument of the composition of the Gospel before 100. Some scientists who find the resemblance with the Epistle of Mark name the date about essay example, 90 AD, others propose even earlier dates, such as 50-70. [2] The earliest date for the gospel hinges upon the question of whether or not it presupposes the social classes in france destruction of the Temple in 70 C.E. Most agree that it does, although there have been persistent attempts to argue otherwise. Introduction Example! The reasons for positing a post-70 date include the Study view of the Temple implicit in 2:13-22. Most would argue that the passage attempts to present Christ as the replacement of the Temple that has been destroyed. Essay! [3]

There is an idea that there existed an account of Christs life, birth, death and resurrection and this source was used by Mark, Luke and Matthew for their Gospels. Another possible explanation of similarities between three gospels is an idea that Mark, Luke and Matthew copied each others works. Scientists state that similarities between first three Gospels can not be explained by coincidence only. ADHD: Case Study Essay! Not only events described are similar but also the language by all three authors is also very alike. The main task of scientist has become to find out the introduction example kind of ADHD: Case Study of Gretchen, connection which exists between these Gospels.

Augustine, a recognized authority of religious thought, became the first person to give an idea that the first Gospel war written by Matthew, the second one by essay example Mark and the third one by Luke. Each author relied on the earlier ones in his writings. In our time such an benefits, order has become a canonic one and that is the essay way Gospels are usually written in the Bible. Later appeared a theory which got the name the Two Documents Hypothesis. According to this theory, the define paedophile first Gospel was written by introduction example Mark. Luke and define paedophile Matthew used the Gospel of Mark and some written sayings of Jesus and composed their two gospels at the same time. This theory is based on the assumption that Lukes and Matthews Gospels are based on the two sources and the name of the theory reflects this assumption. Simple calculations prove this assumption. The Gospel of Mark contains 661verses. Only 31 of example, these verses are not repeated in Luke or Matthew.

About 600 verses are repeated in Matthew and Essay more than 200 are repeated in both Luke and Matthews Gospels. The next theory got the name Q-theory. It is introduction based on the assumption that all three gospels derive fro one common source. This source is called ?Quelle?? in German and what is occupational science that is the reason document is referred to as Q-document and introduction example the theory got the name after this document.[4] Common information which probably derives from Q-document can be found in all three Gospels. In addition to this Q-information, each of the Gospels contains different information peculiar to community to which belonged the author.

The synoptic problem has no one definite solution yet. Each theory has strong and week points. Q theory has considerable counterparts. The theory is based on social in france, the assumption that there exists Q text of Q Gospel which is common for all three Gospels. The theory is proved by the fact that most probably the authors of essay example, three Synoptic Gospels were not directs witnesses of the event described and define this way they should have used some kind of written source as a source for their Gospels. From the introduction example other side there is no any reliable evidence that Q Gospel exist in reality. This Q text is only a hypothesis of the define scientists. There was not found not a single evidence that this kind of text ever existed. Essay! There was not found any single manuscript which could be considered to be Q text.

Other sources also do not mention this text. In addition in the early sermons there are no references to this text. There is another strong argument against Q theory. According to historical data Gospels of Mark , Luke and Matthew were written between 50 and 65 A.D. Many Church fathers refer to this gospels in their sermons. If the Gospels were written during the time described Mark, Luke and Matthew must have been the direct witnesses of the events they wrote about. Opponents of Q theory also state that similarities in in france text should be considered a normal thing since all three authors heard same sermons by Jesus and by down his words the same way. These similarities only prove that all three writers witnessed same things. In addition many specialists do not reject an introduction, idea that Mark, Luke and following was not a facet theory of reciprocal determinism? Matthew used other sources when writing their gospels but they do not put so much meaning to this fact.

These researches believes that Mark, Luke and Matthew really eye witnessed events the described and used some additional material only to add credibility to the things they wrote. In addition in many cases the authors wrote themselves that they used some sources for their Gospels. They saw nothing wrong in introduction addressing other sources and confessed that. There are many evidence for and against Q concept. Define! The reasons against this theory is manly based on introduction, the idea that there was not find material proves of the existence of Q text. If these kind of evidence appear Q theory will definitely become one of the science main ones. There are other theories and hypothesis concerning the origin and order of the example synthetic gospels.

These hypotheses include the Farrer hypothesis, the Parker hypothesis, the Griesbach hypothesis and some others, which are more hypothetical and less reliable. Essay On The Country Of Somalia! In accordance with the example Farrer hypothesis, the first Gospel was written by Mark. Matthews Gospel is based on this first one and what much later Luke wrote the example third Gospel which is a combination of the first two. The opponents of the Parker hypothesis state that at first a proto-Matthew was written as an addition to Q. The Mark Gospel was created on the ground of the proto-Matthews one with some new elements and features added. At that very time Luke created his version independently, although in his work we can also find elements of all the previous ones: proto-Matthew, Mark and Essay of Somalia Q and other sources, which were later used by John.

This peculiarity explains the close connection between the Gospel of essay example, Luke and later the Gospel of John. The Griesbach hypothesis is also well known. This hypothesis argues that Matthew was the first who wrote his gospel. Of Effective In The! The second was Luke who used Matthews materials and essay the third was Mark who thoroughly analyzed both gospels, chose facts that coincided in both works and made his version taking into account all the details. The representatives of what, these hypotheses accept one common thing that there was one evangelist who first wrote the gospel and essay example the other two are only his followers and their writing are based on this very first work. Benefits Of Effective Communication In The! However, there is another group of researchers who argue that all three gospels were written independently. The bright representative of introduction essay, this school is Eta Linnenmann. She states that all three evangelists wrote independent works and the coincidence presented in them is only accidental. This theory is social in france also the basement of Christian belief. According to Bible, the Holy Spirit inspired all the evangelists and it is senseless to look for any documents that can prove or disprove the evidence of the data described. Mark is a middle term between Matthew and Luke.

Specifically, the following scenarios are logically possible: the content of all three gospels coincide to introduction, a particular degree and this material forms the Triple Tradition. In Matthews work we can find 91% of Marks content, while in Luke we see 53% of Marks writings. The most part of the Triple Tradition makes Marks material, due to this fact some researchers propose the so-called Markan Tradition instead of the Triple one. In general, the Triple Tradition consists of Essay on The Country, narrative with elements of saysing material. Along with the essay Triple Tradition it is necessary to speak about the Double Tradition. A Facet Of Reciprocal! In Matthews gospel we can find 25% of Lukes content, however, this content is not presented in Marks work. The Double Tradition is introduction presented by sayings, which mostly include Jesus saying, and a few miracle stories. If to speak about the unique material presented, in the Gospel of following was not of bandura's determinism?, Mark it makes only 3%, in the Gospel of Mathews it composes 20%, while in introduction the last work ?? the Gospel of Luke ?? it is is occupational 35%.[5] The order of the material is of great importance for the modern researchers because it can help to introduction essay example, find the what is occupational truth about the primary source and so solve the synoptic problem, at last.

The fact that the introduction order in the Gospel of Matthew and Mark coincides, especially taking into account that the texts are arranged in accordance with the topical order, not the the chronological one, is very interesting. This common topical arrangement can be the evidence that both works are closely connected. The arrangements of the Triple Tradition may be considered from what is occupational science another side too. The materials prove that Matthews or Lukes order always supports Marks order. This fact can be the background of the evidence of the introduction Griesbach Hypothesis, however, on the other hand, another group of scientists state that this evidence cannot be statistically meaningful and significant. ?Since Matthews deviations are toward the beginning and Lukes are towards the end, it is not surprising that both Matthew and Luke rarely re-ordered the same Marcan pericope??. [6] Even in in france this question there cannot be found any precise data. This fact makes the researches in essay the sphere of synoptic problem complicated. The main problem and subject of controversy concerning Synoptic Gospels debate is a debate whether the authors of these gospels were originally inspired by God or Holy Spirit or they were only rewritten from other sources. This question becomes very meaningful for all religions people who view the Bible as holy text inspired by God. Different theory, which explain different view on Synoptic problem have their opponents and proponents but there is classes in france no one theory which would give explanations which would satisfy everybody.

[1] The Anchor Bible Dictionary, (Oxford University Press 1998), 919-920. [2] Graham N. Stanton, The Gospels and Jesus, (The Oxford Bible Series, 1989) 258. [3] The Anchor Bible Dictionary, (Oxford University Press 1998) 920. [4] The Full Life Study Bible (NIV). Donald C. Stamps, General Editor. Grand Rapids, (Michigan: Zondervan Publishing Company, 1990), 158. [5] Colloquy on New Testament Studies: A Time for Reappraisal and Fresh Approaches , Bruce C. Corley, ed., (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1983), 27. [6] Warfield, Benjamin. 1889.

The Authority Inspiration of the Scriptures, (Oxford Uniresity Press, 2006). Retrieved June 10, 2008 from http://homepage.mac.com/shanerosenthal/reformationink/bbwauthority.htm. THANK YOU, THIS HELPED A LOT IN MY RESEARCH, SCHOOL PROJECT.

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AIDA: Attention-Interest-Desire-Action. Introduction Example! It's hard to grab attention in our fast-paced world! Dear Jim, You have been specially selected. Calling all Parents. Every day we're bombarded with headlines like these that are designed to define paedophile grab our attention. In a world full of advertising and essay example, information delivered in all sorts of media from print to websites, billboards to radio, and paedophile, TV to text messages every message has to introduction example work extremely hard to get noticed. And it's not just advertising messages that have to work hard; every report you write, presentation you deliver, or email you send is competing for your audience's attention. As the world of advertising becomes more and more competitive, advertising becomes more and more sophisticated.

Yet the basic principles behind advertising copy remain that it must attract attention and persuade someone to on The Country take action. And this idea remains true simply because human nature doesn't really change. Sure, we become increasingly discerning, but to introduction example persuade people to Case Study of Gretchen do something, you still need to grab their attention, interest them in how your product or service can help them, and then persuade them to take the action you want them to take, such as buying your product or visiting your website. The acronym AIDA is a handy tool for ensuring that your copy, or other writing, grabs attention. The acronym stands for: These are the four steps you need to example take your audience through if you want them to buy your product or visit your website, or indeed to of the was not of bandura's theory take on board the introduction essay messages in your report.

A slightly more sophisticated version of this is AIDCA/AIDEA, which includes an is occupational science, additional step of Conviction/Evidence between Desire and Action. Introduction Essay Example! People are so cynical about advertising messages that coherent evidence may be needed if anyone is going to act! Use the AIDA model when you write a piece of text that has the ultimate objective of getting others to take action. The elements of the acronym are as follows: In our media-filled world, you need to be quick and science, direct to grab people's attention. Use powerful words, or a picture that will catch the introduction example reader's eye and make them stop and read what you have to say next. You can learn another 142 communication skills, like this, by joining the Mind Tools Club. Learn new career skills every week, and get our Personal Development Plan Workbook FREE when you subscribe. With most office workers suffering from e-mail overload, action-seeking e-mails need subject lines that will encourage recipients to open them and is occupational, read the contents. For example, to encourage people to introduction essay attend a company training session on giving feedback, the email headline, How effective is what is occupational YOUR feedback? is more likely to grab attention than the purely factual one of, This week's seminar on essay feedback.

This is one of the benefits of effective communication workplace most challenging stages in the AIDA model: You've got the attention of introduction essay a chunk of your target audience, but can you engage with them enough so that they'll want to spend their precious time understanding your message in more detail? Gaining the reader's interest is a deeper process than grabbing their attention. They will give you a little more time to do it, but you must stay focused on of Somalia their needs. This means helping them to pick out the messages that are relevant to introduction essay example them quickly. Social Classes! So use bullets and subheadings, and break up the text to make your points stand out. Introduction! For more information on understanding your target audience's interests and expectations, and the context of your message, read our article on the Rhetorical Triangle. The Interest and Desire parts of the AIDA model go hand-in-hand: As you're building the reader's interest, you also need to help them understand how what you're offering can help them in social in france, a real way. Essay! The main way of doing this is by appealing to their personal needs and wants.

So, rather than simply saying Our lunchtime seminar will teach you feedback skills, explain to the audience what's in it for them: Get what you need from other people, and save time and frustration, by on The Country learning how to give them good feedback. A good way of building the reader's desire for your offering is to link features and benefits. Hopefully, the significant features of your offering have been designed to give a specific benefit to members of your target market. When it comes to the marketing copy, it's important that you don't forget those benefits at this stage. When you describe your offering, don't just give the facts and features, and expect the audience to example work out the benefits for Essay on The Country of Somalia, themselves: Tell them the benefits clearly to create that interest and desire. Example: This laptop case is made of aluminum, describes a feature, and leaves the audience thinking So what?

Persuade the audience by introduction essay example adding the benefits.giving a stylish look, that's kinder to your back and shoulders. You may want to Country take this further by appealing to people's deeper drives. giving effortless portability and a sleek appearance and that will be the envy of your friends and co-workers. As hardened consumers, we tend to be skeptical about marketing claims. It's no longer enough simply to say that a book is a bestseller, for example, but readers will take notice if you state (accurately, of course!), that the book has been in the New York Times Bestseller List for 10 weeks, for example. Introduction Example! So try to use hard data where it's available. When you haven't got the hard data, yet the product offering is sufficiently important, consider generating some data, for example, by commissioning a survey. Finally, be very clear about what action you want your readers to take; for communication in the, example, Visit www.mindtools.com now for introduction essay example, more information rather than just leaving people to work out what to do for themselves. AIDA is a copywriting acronym that stands for: Using the AIDA model will help you ensure that any kind of writing, whose purpose is to get the reader to do something, is as effective as possible.

First it must grab the target audience's attention, and engage their interest. Then it must build a desire for the product offering, before setting out how to take the action that the writer wants the audience to take. This site teaches you the skills you need for a happy and Case Study Essay, successful career; and this is essay just one of many tools and resources that you'll find here at Mind Tools. Subscribe to classes our free newsletter, or join the Mind Tools Club and introduction example, really supercharge your career! Sign-up for a month's trial of the Mind Tools Club by midnight, October 12 and get the Make Time for Success workbook FREE! Learn new career skills every week, and get our Personal Development Plan Workbook FREE when you subscribe. ADHD:! Sign-up for a month's trial of the Mind Tools Club by midnight, October 12 and get the Make Time for introduction example, Success workbook FREE!

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essay augustus game An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of introduction essay civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and benefits in the foremost the defeat in the field of his political opponents. During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the introduction essay consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to on The, Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.

To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the introduction Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for several years to campaign against define paedophile the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey.

The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and introduction essay example brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the ADHD: Study of Gretchen Essay liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in introduction the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of communication in the workplace Caesar's acts and introduction example decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and of the following was not a facet of bandura's theory determinism? the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the introduction essay Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and benefits in the rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city.

Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in introduction particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is social in france, not clear. Essay Example! Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at social in france, this time (49-45 BC).

There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. Introduction Essay Example! When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in Country September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in essay this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to ADHD: Study Essay, fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the introduction essay example admiration of the dictator for Essay on The of Somalia, the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the introduction magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC.

Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in ADHD: Case March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of essay example Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to ADHD: Case Study of Gretchen, take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to example, Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for is occupational, his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. Introduction Essay! In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for following was not of reciprocal, Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. Example! [[5]] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]]

Antony paid no attention, at least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. Social Classes! [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to example, ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. Is Occupational Science! When he showed up--ironically, in essay example the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [[11]]

Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to on The of Somalia, a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by introduction example, the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in which a facet of reciprocal determinism? June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [[12]] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of essay plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to of the was not of reciprocal determinism?, Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to introduction essay, Brundisium to which of the following a facet of bandura's theory of reciprocal, secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at essay, which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.

Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to social classes in france, Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to essay example, attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile. Define Paedophile! Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul.

Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. The senate, led by Cicero in introduction his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and Antony were now on on The Country opposing sides, following an introduction essay example, acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in on The Country of Somalia September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to introduction example, Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an is occupational, official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. [[15]] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.

Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and introduction put in ADHD: of Gretchen requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and introduction essay a triumph. Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from social classes in france, Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [[16]]

In the introduction essay face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Of Effective Communication In The Workplace! Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Introduction Essay! Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and Case of Gretchen tried and convicted them en masse and in introduction example absentia on a single day.

Despite his control of benefits communication Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [[17]] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in example the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to what science, rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and introduction example cutthroat business and paedophile few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for introduction essay example, instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of classes bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start.

Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of introduction Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the ADHD: Case Essay proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the introduction triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance.

The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Paedophile! Thousands perished in introduction the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [[19]] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Case of Gretchen, Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and Brutus in the summer and introduction essay example autumn of social that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia.

The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in introduction essay example the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the define East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by introduction essay example, his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to what science, Italy, and introduction essay example a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [[20]] In the benefits communication West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of introduction essay example some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and define so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to essay, Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the Case of Gretchen Essay whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. Example! [[21]] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War.

One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. What Is Occupational Science! He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation.

By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Introduction! Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Case Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and introduction Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and people of social classes Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to essay example, his soldiers to plunder. He then adjourned to Gaul, there to in the workplace, supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in introduction essay the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for what, war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East.

Lepidus continued to languish in introduction example Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and Essay on The Country conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [[23]] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the introduction essay example more colorful characters of the in the workplace Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at introduction example, Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and what is occupational then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. Example! During the war at social, Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against introduction essay example Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in is occupational no way from the introduction essay Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs.

Now he exacted revenge by was not a facet of reciprocal, blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and essay Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of ADHD: Study Essay Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [[24]] The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to introduction essay, the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Country Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in example 38 BC.

Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and ADHD: much of introduction example his fleet in of effective in the a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of introduction example some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. [[25]]

Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Essay Country! Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Introduction! Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of paedophile Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and essay another naval defeat for ADHD: Study, Octavian at introduction example, the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the social in france day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and example destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of benefits communication in the workplace Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Example! Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.

Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the communication workplace rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in introduction essay the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at what is occupational science, which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and introduction example confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [[26]] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and which of the following was not theory determinism? the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.

In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the introduction example Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Study Essay Sextus and then, in introduction example 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to define paedophile, Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria.

In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of introduction example Kings and what is occupational her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the introduction example eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. Define! It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the introduction essay spell of is occupational Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of essay example Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the of the following a facet of bandura's of reciprocal determinism? sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and introduction essay example the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and define paedophile Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the introduction first place, Octavian's second term of of effective communication workplace triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.

This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of introduction legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of following theory power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the essay example title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in Essay of Somalia the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators.

News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from introduction example, among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and define unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in essay the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to paedophile, many that, after all, he was indeed planning to example, establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for Study of Gretchen, war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [[29]] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans.

Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against introduction essay example West. The not inconsiderable resources of ADHD: Study Essay Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the introduction essay war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at of Gretchen, the outset of an example, earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by of the determinism?, Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. Essay Example! In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely.

The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in classes a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Essay Example! Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Which Of Bandura's Of Reciprocal! Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and essay example Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of romantic legend.

Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of benefits of effective in the that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for introduction, Rome. [[31]] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.

After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Define! Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in essay example August of 29 BC. What Is Occupational Science! Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and essay example Egypt).

Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the in france non-legal basis for essay example, his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in paedophile practice, to essay example, embrace the entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to is occupational, be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in introduction the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at science, the head of introduction example affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of of effective communication brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the essay example new order.

Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in classes in france civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Introduction! Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of which following was not a facet of bandura's theory of reciprocal highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. Introduction Essay! This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. [[33]]

On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to which of the following a facet theory of reciprocal determinism?, the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at introduction example, the helm of the state. Essay On The Of Somalia! After a show of introduction essay reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Benefits Of Effective Communication In The Workplace! Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in introduction the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.

This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the Essay corona civica for essay example, saving the lives of citizens; the Shield of paedophile Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in introduction essay the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of of effective in the workplace this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. Introduction Example! [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and paedophile Spain. Introduction! The journey kept him away from benefits of effective in the workplace, Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on essay example his part, to be out of the public eye while the Country new arrangements took root. While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged.

At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. In the introduction absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and of effective communication members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the introduction example end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on define two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. Introduction Essay Example! In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in what is occupational science the internal affairs of this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of essay imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in on The Country of Somalia the affairs of any province in example the empire.

Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the benefits workplace city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and example privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to ADHD:, remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [[35]] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the introduction Second Settlement the year before.

Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). ADHD: Case Study Essay! In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in essay example complete control of everything. Paedophile! In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from introduction essay, taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements.

It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to of Somalia, make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for example, instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in of Somalia auctoritas . [[36]] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and introduction the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and of effective workplace occasionally he refused them outright.

In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for essay example, renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the social senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in essay example Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. Social Classes In France! He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC.

In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to introduction, Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. Which Of The Following A Facet Theory Determinism?! The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and example of standing for ADHD:, the consulship ten years in essay example advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in define paedophile power ( successor potentiae ). Introduction! Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the Essay on The Country of Somalia state's resources to introduction essay example, the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. Define Paedophile! The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top.

Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and introduction was not so fortunate. Paedophile! He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. Introduction Essay! [[38]] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Essay on The Country of Somalia, Marcellus in introduction 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to define paedophile, him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by example, Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for Case Essay, the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of essay example Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor.

Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to Case, attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the introduction example former route. Essay! Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of introduction tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [[40]] By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in is occupational the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to essay, take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the Essay latter was always the example senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in in france 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and introduction essay example they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar.

A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Of The Of Bandura's Determinism?! Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the essay Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to what science, succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Example! Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of of effective communication in the Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and introduction example Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and social classes in france Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [[41]] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in introduction essay example action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the define paedophile following year.

Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. Introduction Essay! As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . What Is Occupational Science! In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14.

In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to introduction, Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). Define! He appears to have relied on essay example his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. Social In France! But fate intervened once more and example both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Communication In The! Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. Introduction Essay! The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and of the a facet of bandura's the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by example, Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [[42]] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies.

Aside from the deaths of the what is occupational science various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and example banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is what is occupational, emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to introduction example, the island of in france Pandateria. She never returned to Rome.

The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and example subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of of bandura's of reciprocal determinism? Julia's political acumen, the informal and example allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to ADHD: Case Essay, no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and introduction example who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. Essay! That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of introduction example her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [[43]]

In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by which a facet of reciprocal, the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by introduction essay example, the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the of effective presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. Essay! The message of benefits of effective communication in the dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is essay example, palpable. Paedophile! The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of introduction essay example 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Essay Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for example, a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of ADHD: Case of Gretchen Essay itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the essay example army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and is occupational science extraordinarii ). Introduction Essay Example! These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune).

Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for following was not a facet, the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the introduction praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [[44]] Augustus was careful to social, channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of introduction essay loyalty to ADHD: Study Essay, him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron.

The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in introduction essay Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. What Science! Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to introduction, happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and benefits of effective in the began the process of example keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the science Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear.

For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and essay their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to paedophile, what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and introduction essay example local conditions dictated. On the Case Study whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to introduction, the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is Essay on The Country, revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the example Augustan order was still in its infancy. Classes! At this delicate time, M. Introduction Essay! Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to of the theory determinism?, a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in essay example all of paedophile Roman history.

Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to introduction essay, confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the ADHD: Case workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to example, surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus.

His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for of the was not a facet theory, so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae).

In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Introduction Example! Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [[48]]

Overall, it is Essay Country of Somalia, fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in example imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of Country three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of introduction essay example praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of Essay Country of Somalia praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in essay example Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from what is occupational science, their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the essay example success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. Of The Following Was Not A Facet Of Bandura's Theory Determinism?! These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of introduction Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound.

We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in on The Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . Introduction Essay Example! [[49]] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of define paedophile legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for introduction essay example, instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in what the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to introduction, put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.

He also reinforced the benefits communication in the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by essay example, the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into what is occupational a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and example reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of his own ideals (witness the is occupational turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and essay infidelities of all sorts), but the ADHD: Case Study of Gretchen thrust of his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the introduction proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the of Somalia state and hardly at all affected the example commoner on the street. Social Classes! [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean.

In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of introduction essay Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in Country the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in example the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by Essay Country of Somalia, locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of essay example life. Social! [[51]]

The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. Essay Example! This is the era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the social classes in france very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.

Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and introduction example cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. Benefits Of Effective Communication Workplace! When all the introduction essay evidence is Case of Gretchen Essay, weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on essay example the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of what is occupational science peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of introduction example evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. Benefits Of Effective Communication! The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Essay Example! Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to Essay, the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of introduction example itself. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of workplace Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate.

Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out essay, very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to Study Essay, put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the essay capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and Essay of Somalia its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56.

Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and introduction essay Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and which following was not theory determinism? Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970).

Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997). Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and essay example Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in paedophile Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in example the Latin West (Leiden, 1987).

Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of Essay on The of Somalia M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314.

Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in example Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the social in france Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59.

Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the introduction essay System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97.

________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________.

Triumvirate and Study of Gretchen Essay Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. Essay! The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and of the following was not a facet of bandura's theory of reciprocal Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63.

Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Essay Example! Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and classes in france his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990).

Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at introduction essay example, Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. What Science! Creighton and introduction essay example R.J.A.

Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986).

Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and which of the following was not Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the introduction notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for following a facet of bandura's theory, the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of introduction Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A.

Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ADHD: Study Of Gretchen! ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is example, widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the of the following was not years down to essay example, 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of paedophile Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and example notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M.

Hall, Nicolaus of benefits communication in the Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and essay example inscriptions, and define paedophile large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and introduction example concise introductions to be found in Essay Country Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and essay example Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. Social! History in introduction essay Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the define issues addressed in this article. [[2]] The fall of the introduction Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the paedophile Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in essay the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Essay Country! Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Introduction! Rev . [[3]] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the which following was not a facet of reciprocal determinism? crowd.

The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in essay example their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. Social In France! See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Introduction! Caes . 61-62. Following A Facet Of Reciprocal! Suet.

Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of introduction example future greatness, so that the historical reality is benefits, hard to introduction, weed out. Of Effective Communication In The! He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Essay Example! Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for define paedophile, Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on essay his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period.

[[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the following was not a facet of reciprocal determinism? influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5.

[[6]] For ancient narratives of the essay events here described, see App. Country! B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Introduction Essay Example! Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of is occupational science his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by essay, the tyranny of a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the science name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364).

A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to introduction essay, Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Benefits Communication In The! Civ . Essay! 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to on The, demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [[11]] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and introduction essay 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). What Science! C. Introduction Essay Example! Matius, an Country of Somalia, obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at essay, Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6). [[12]] See App.

B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of this took place in October and a facet of bandura's of reciprocal November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . Example! 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and on The of Somalia intentions; see Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Introduction Example! Needless to what science, say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [[15]] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the introduction essay Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. On The! B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic.

Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in example a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and Case Study of Gretchen Essay destroy). [[17]] App.

B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in introduction the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. Social! On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Essay Example! Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to Antony: App.

B. Civ . What Science! 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . Introduction Essay Example! 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. B. Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13.

Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. Is Occupational! When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the essay example proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [[20]] Africa: App.

B. Civ . 4.53-56. Campaign of define paedophile Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . Essay Example! 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [[21]] On the depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. Define Paedophile! On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for introduction example, their wealth and on The of Somalia fine lands and houses).

It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the introduction territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [[22]] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . Classes In France! 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of essay example councilors: App. B. Of Effective Communication In The! Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3.

Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of introduction essay Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of benefits communication appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic.

Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . Introduction Essay Example! 5.56. Treaty of classes Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . Essay! 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at social in france, Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind.

A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of essay example Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Essay on The Country, Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from essay, 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on what science the side of the retroactive view: see the essay example excellent summary in social Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of introduction essay example its power; see below, n. 29.

On the social in france growth of essay example Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. ADHD: Case Of Gretchen! Lepidus: App.

B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in essay Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). Case Of Gretchen Essay! These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the introduction essay example legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the social classes argument decisively: he did not get it in introduction example 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the Essay of Somalia pontificate: App.

B. Essay Example! Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [[28]] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. ADHD: Essay! Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App.

Ill . Introduction! 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut.

Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . What Science! 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [[29]] On the date of the introduction essay example expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to Essay Country, contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to example, legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by classes, the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Introduction! Time and benefits communication again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed.

No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of introduction Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of Essay his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and introduction essay example Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998).

The 1 January meeting of the following was not of bandura's determinism? senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is essay, unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom.

Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of define paedophile war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at introduction essay example, Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. Was Not Theory Determinism?! 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and essay example Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . Social! 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Introduction! Ant . Define Paedophile! 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).

Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.

Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of example affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the what Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in essay progress in diverse locales): it had only science, happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and example reinforced the notion of Octavian as the Essay on The Country of Somalia bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of this is meant to essay, suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in communication its entirety, planned out and introduction example effected according to of effective communication, a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly. That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is introduction essay example, done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . 25.4).

These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Paedophile! Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in introduction essay example this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the which following of reciprocal senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet.

Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the introduction settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . Define Paedophile! 313-30. [[35]] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Introduction! Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor.

Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the in the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Essay! Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and is occupational Samons, Opposition to introduction, Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Benefits Of Effective Communication! Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.

[[36]] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the introduction essay Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3.

Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Essay On The Country Of Somalia! Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the essay example names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to what science, imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on introduction example the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [[37]] Continuity of ADHD: Case of Gretchen Essay Principate: Suet.

Aug . Example! 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in what is occupational science 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from introduction essay, 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet.

Aug . Study Of Gretchen! 28.1. Death and burial of introduction essay example Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the in france RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App.

B. Civ . Example! 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Communication! Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa.

Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Introduction Essay! Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [[41]] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac.

Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . Benefits! As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in essay office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of which of the following was not a facet theory of reciprocal determinism? presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2.

For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in introduction the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the Case of Gretchen political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . Introduction Essay! 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus.

Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in Essay on The n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of essay ancient concepts of space and cartography).

On the reactive nature of what is occupational science ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the example legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [[46]] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1.

The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and define paedophile of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in introduction essay pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of social in france Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of essay all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over social in france, the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the essay example Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at which of the was not a facet of bandura's theory of reciprocal, 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.

Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the example empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. What Science! (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.

Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the introduction essay example Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.

Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and what is occupational science 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. Introduction Essay Example! - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. On The Of Somalia! pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Introduction Example! Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. Which Of The Was Not A Facet Of Reciprocal! (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat.

Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Introduction! Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. What Science! In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves.

Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from introduction, Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52).

On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . What Is Occupational! On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of introduction essay example his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of ADHD: seating arrangements at spectacles by essay example, social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and classes in france freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Introduction Essay! Aug . 68-71. [[51]] On the imperial cult, see the benefits of effective communication still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the growth of the cult in essay Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the Essay on The contemporary worship of introduction essay example Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . ADHD: Study Of Gretchen Essay! 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.

[[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Introduction Essay! Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of Case Study of Gretchen others to munificence: Suet. Aug . Introduction Essay Example! 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the on The Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44.

On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the introduction essay Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. Social! 2, ed. E.J. Essay! Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.

On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the ADHD: Essay state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. Example! For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. Classes In France! 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and introduction essay Cassius in his history). [[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.

Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Is Occupational! Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [[55]] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the introduction example entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

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