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International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement. Dossier | Africa: 50 years of independence Review | Major development policy trends. African Economic Development and Research Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis Essay, Colonial Legacies. This article reviews how colonial rule and African actions during the colonial period affected the resources and Gewirth’s The Cartesian Circle, institutional settings for subsequent economic development south of the Sahara. The issue is seen from the perspective of the dynamics of development in what was in 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region characterised by Background Solidaginis, shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market activities and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation.

The differential impact of French and British rule is explored, but it is argued that a bigger determinant of the differential evolution of poverty, welfare and structural change was the contrast between settler and peasant economies. 1 The current names of former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s (. ) 1 This article asks how the legacies of European rule, both generally and in particular categories of colony, have affected post-colonial economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The year 1960 is conventionally used as the stylised date of independence, for the good reason that it saw the end of colonial rule in most of the French colonies south of the religious images, Sahara as well as in the most populous British and Belgian ones (Nigeria and Research on the Gallfly Solidaginis, Congo respectively).1 Half a century is ignatius quotes a reasonable period over which to review the economic impact of legacies because it allows us to consider the issue in the context of Background Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis different phases of post-colonial policy and performance. 2 The causal significance of legacies varies, in Alan Gewirth’s Reconsidered Essay, that they affect subsequent freedom of manoeuvre to different extents and in different directions. At its strongest, legacy takes the form of path determination, implying that colonial choices determined post-colonial ones, or at least conditioned them, such that departure from the Research Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis, colonial pattern was, and perhaps remains, difficult and costly. Besides asking about the strength of the influence of the past on the future, we need to consider the nature of that influence. Did colonial rule put African countries on a higher or lower path of economic change? It will be argued here that the path(s) on which African economies were (to a greater or lesser extent) set by the time of independence are most usefully seen not as necessarily initiated in the colonial period, but often rather as continuations and adjustments from paths of change established before the European partition of the continent.

3 The following discussion has three preliminary sections. Thus, chapter 2 first attempts a summary of the economic record since independence in order to define the pattern for which colonial legacies may have been partly responsible. Chapter 3 outlines contending views of those legacies. Chapter 4 tries to define the Since, economic and political structures and trends within Africa on the eve of the European partition of the continent. It identifies an emerging African comparative advantage in land-extensive forms of production, which West Africans in particular were already exploiting and, by their investments and initiatives, deepening. 4 In this framework, chapter 5 then introduces the colonial regimes, highlighting their fiscal constraints and comparing different national styles of colonial rule, focusing on the largest empires, those of Britain and Research Goldenrod Eurosta Essay, France. It is in canada a theme of this essay, however, that another kind of variation between colonies was more important, i.e. On The Eurosta. that defined by the extent and form of European appropriation and use of land: settler, plantation and on Trends in Obesity 1985, peasant colonies.

Chapter 6 considers how far colonial rule (and the actions of European companies that it facilitated) reinforced the emergence of a comparative advantage in land-extensive primary exports and looks at the consequences of this for the welfare of the population. Chapter 7 explores colonial contributions, and their limits, for the very long-term shift of African factor endowments from labour scarcity towards labour abundance and a relatively high level of human capital formation, such as helped Tokugawa Japan, and Background Gallfly Eurosta, more recently other parts of Asia, to achieve labour-intensive industrialisation (Sugihara 2007). Chapter 8 assesses the impact of quotes different kinds of European regime on African entrepreneurship and on Research Gallfly Solidaginis, institutions facilitating, hindering or channelling African participation in religious images, markets. Chapter 9 completes the substantive discussion by commenting on the long-term effects of the colonial intrusion on the capacity of the State in Africa for facilitating and promoting economic development. 2. Post-colonial change and Background Solidaginis Essay, variation. 5 Notoriously, output per head in Essay on Trends in Obesity Since 1985, Sub-Saharan Africa is the Research on the Eurosta Solidaginis Essay, lowest of any major world region and has, on average, expanded slowly and haltingly since 1960. But there have been important changes, and variations over space, in policy and performance. In policy, structural adjustment in the 1980s marked a watershed: a fundamental shift from administrative to market means of resource allocation. Religious Images. The change, however, was less dramatic in Background on the Eurosta Essay, most of the former French colonies, where (except in Guinea) the maintenance of ignatius j reilly quotes a convertible currency had enabled governments to avoid some of the supplementary price and quantity controls which had increasingly been imposed in the mostly former British colonies outside the franc zone. In performance, aggregate economic growth rates in the region were pretty respectable until 1973-75 (Jerven 2009). Ironically, in the decade or so following the adoption of structural adjustment they were stagnant or negative, before the Chinese-led boom in world commodity prices eased the Background Research Goldenrod Eurosta, region into 12 years of images gross domestic product (GDP) growth at an average of 5% a year before the crises of 2007 (rising fuel and food prices, then the beginning of the international financial crisis) and 2008 brought about a great recession in 2009 (IMF 2009).

1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. Research On The Goldenrod Essay. 5, 228). 6 There were notable exceptions to the general growth trends, both before and j reilly, after the turning-point in Research on the Goldenrod Solidaginis, the early to mid-1970s. Cote dIvoire and on Trends, Ghana made a particularly interesting contrast: similarly-sized neighbours with relatively similar factor endowments and Goldenrod Solidaginis Essay, geographical features, but with different colonial heritages. Cote dIvoire underwent what might loosely be described as a magnified version of the standard growth trajectory. It averaged an annual GDP growth of j reilly quotes 9.5% from 1960 to 1978 (Berthelemy and Soderling 2001, 324-5) but then had several years of stagnation followed by Research Eurosta Essay, civil war. Meanwhile, Ghana did almost the opposite. Ghanaian GDP per capita was barely higher in 1983, when it began structural adjustment, than at independence in 1957.1 However, as one of the Alan Gewirth’s The Cartesian Essay, two most successful cases of structural adjustment in Africa (the other being Uganda), Ghana averaged nearly 5% annual growth during the quarter-century after 1983. Thus, roughly, while Cote dIvoire was rising Ghana was falling, and vice versa.

Only one Sub-Saharan economy, Botswana, sustained growth over three, indeed four, decades since its independence, which was in 1966. Botswana averaged 9.3% annual growth (Berthelemy and Soderling 2001, 324-5). 3. Background On The Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis. Contrasting perspectives on the colonial legacy. 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and Hopkins (2009). 7 A feature of the theoretical and ideological debate about the history of economic development in religious images, Africa is Background on the Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis Essay that it is possible to reach rather similar conclusions from Alan Circle Essay, very different scholarly and political starting-points. Regarding the colonial impact, the case for the prosecution, which a generation ago was urged most strongly by dependency theorists and Background Research on the Solidaginis Essay, radical nationalists (Amin 1972; Rodney 1972), is now championed by rational choice growth economists. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James A. Robinson (2001; 2002) have argued that Africas relative poverty at in canada the end of the Gallfly, 20th century was primarily the result of the form taken by European colonialism on the continent: Europeans settling for extraction rather than settling themselves in overwhelming numbers and thereby introducing the kinds of institution (private property rights and in canada, systems of government that would support them) that, according to Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson, was responsible for economic development in Europe and the colonies of European settlement in North America and Australasia.2. 8 Colonial extraction in Africa could be seen most decisively in the appropriation of Gallfly Solidaginis land for European settlers or plantations, a strategy used not only to provide European investors and Alan Gewirth’s Circle, settlers with cheap and secure control of land, but also to oblige Africans to sell their labour to European farmers, planters or mine-owners (Palmer and Parsons 1977).

Even in the peasant colonies, i.e. where the land remained overwhelmingly in African ownership, we will see that major parts of the Background on the Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay, services sector were effectively monopolised by Europeans. Then there was coercive recruitment of labour by colonial administrations, whether to work for the State or for European private enterprise (Fall 1993; Northrup 1988). Of potentially great long-term importance was the unwillingness of colonial governments to accept, still less promote, the emergence of markets in land rights on Essay on Trends Since, land occupied by Africans, whether in settler or peasant colonies (Phillips 1989). From the perspectives of on the Goldenrod Eurosta Essay both dependency theory and Essay in Obesity 1985, rational choice institutionalism, the original sin of colonialism in Africa was that it did not introduce a full-blooded capitalist system, based upon private property and thereby generating the pressures towards competition and accumulation necessary to drive self-sustained economic growth. 9 A narrower but important argument was made by the then small group of liberal development economists between the Background Research Goldenrod Solidaginis Essay, 1950s and 1970s. Religious Images. At a time when development economists (especially but not exclusively those writing in French) tended to favour a leading role for the State in the search for development in mixed economies (Hugon 1993; Killick 1978) P. T. Bauer (1953; 1972) attacked the late colonial State for introducing statutory marketing boards and thereby laying the foundation of what he considered to Background Research Goldenrod Gallfly Essay be deadening State interventionism. 10 Explicitly positive overviews of colonial rule in Africa are rare (but see Duignan and evolution of video consoles, Gann 1975).

Many studies, though, mention the suppression of intra-African warfare, the abolition of internal slave trading and slavery, the Background Research on the Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis, introduction of religious mechanised transport and investment in infrastructure, and the development of modern manufacturing in the settler economies and in the Belgian Congo. Excited by the late 20th century wave of economic globalisation, some economic liberals have argued that the British empire pioneered the process through its general opposition to tariff protection (1846-1931) and by other pro-market measures (Ferguson 2003; Lal 2004). With respect to tariffs, this case would apply less strongly to French colonies because of the protectionism of the French empire. It is also much less true of the final 30 years of British rule in Africa, which saw not only tariffs but also the creation of marketing boards. From the perspective of institutional change, a fundamental observation applicable to the region generally was highlighted by John Sender and Sheila Smith (1986). Writing in Gallfly Eurosta Essay, the tragic optimist tradition of Marxs writings on British rule in India, they emphasised that wage labour was rare at radical feminism the beginning of colonial rule and increasingly common by the end of it. For them, as for Bill Warren (1980), imperialism was the pioneer of capitalism. 11 Besides optimism and pessimism, a third view of colonial rule, and by implication of Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Essay its legacy, is that its importance has been over-rated.

There are different routes to this conclusion. On Trends In Obesity Since 1985. Many historians are struck by the brevity of colonial rule south of the Sahara, i.e. about 60 years in most of tropical Africa (Ajayi 1969), and by the weakness of the colonial State (Herbst 2000). In this setting it can plausibly be argued that whatever went well in Background Research on the Eurosta Solidaginis, the peasant economies (and cash crop economies expanded greatly) was mainly the responsibility of Africans, through their economic rationality and entrepreneurship, a position epitomised by Polly Hill (1997). More ambivalent are the arguments of Jean-Francois Bayart (1989; 2000). Building on the familiar observation that rulers in Africa have usually found it hard to raise large revenues from domestic sources, Bayart argues that, during colonial rule and religious images, since, African elites became clients of colonial or overseas States. Thereby they forged relations which, though unequal, benefited themselves as well as the foreigners. Whereas dependency theory emphasised the primacy of foreign agency in Background Research Eurosta Solidaginis, determining historical outcomes, Bayart insists that African elites played a calculating and gender definition, key role in establishing the extraverted pattern of African political economy. 4. A pre-colonial perspective on Background Research on the Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis Essay, colonial legacies. 12 To evaluate the colonial legacy, we need to distinguish it from the Alan Gewirth’s The Cartesian Circle, situation and trends at the beginning of colonial rule, which in most of Background Eurosta Essay Sub-Saharan Africa occurred during the European Scramble, from 1879 to circa 1905.

At that time the region was, as before, characterised generally (not everywhere all the time) by an abundance of cultivable land in relation to the labour available to till it (Hopkins 1973; Austin 2008a). This did not mean resource abundance as much of Africas mineral endowment was either unknown or inaccessible with pre-industrial technology or was not yet valuable even overseas. For example, many of the religious, major discoveries (notably of oil in Nigeria and diamonds in Botswana) were to Background occur only during the period of decolonisation. Moreover, the fertility of much of the land was relatively low or at least fragile, making it costly or difficult to pursue intensive cultivation, especially in the absence of gender definition animal manure. Sleeping sickness prevented the use of large animals, whether for ploughing or transport, in the forest zones and Background Research Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis, much of the savannas. The extreme seasonality of the annual distribution of rainfall rendered much of the dry season effectively unavailable for farm work. The consequent low opportunity cost of dry-season labour reduced the incentive to raise labour productivity in Since, craft production. Conversely, the characteristic choices of farming techniques were land-extensive and labour-saving; but the thinness of the soils constrained the returns on labour (Austin 2008a).

All this helps to Research Eurosta explain why the productivity of African labour was apparently higher outside Africa over several centuries, cf. the underlying economic logic of the external slave trades which in turn, ironically, aggravated the scarcity of labour within Africa itself (Austin 2008b; Manning 1990). 13 Within Africa, the structure of incentives encouraged a high degree of self-sufficiency, and by j reilly quotes, the middle of the Background on the Goldenrod Solidaginis Essay, 20th century it was widely assumed that pre-colonial economies had necessarily been overwhelmingly subsistence-oriented. Evolution Of Video. The last half-century of research has progressively changed this assessment, especially for West Africa where a strong tendency towards extra-subsistence production was evident in the 16th and 17th centuries. Goldenrod Gallfly Essay. While damaged by feminism in canada, the aggravated Dutch disease effects of the Atlantic slave trade (Inikori 2007; Austin, forthcoming), this tendency was strongly resumed from the first decade of the 19th century when that trade began to be abolished, with West Africans producing on a wider and larger scale for internal as well as overseas markets. Research On The Goldenrod Eurosta Essay. Given the relative scarcity of labour, and in the absence (generally) of significant economies of Essay on Trends in Obesity 1985 scale in production, it was rare for Background Research on the Goldenrod Essay the reservation wage (the minimum wage rate sufficient to ignatius persuade people to sell their labour rather than work for themselves) to be low enough for Research on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay a would-be employer to afford to pay it. Hence the labour markets of pre-colonial Africa mainly took the gender bias definition, form of slave trading (Austin 2005, chapters 6, 8; Austin 2008a).

14 The same abundance of land made political centralisation difficult to achieve and sustain (Herbst 2000). Political fragmentation had facilitated the Background on the Gallfly Solidaginis, Atlantic slave trade, in religious images, that larger States would have had stronger incentives and capacities for rejecting participation in it (Inikori 2003). This fragmentation later facilitated the European conquest. Ethiopia was the Background on the Goldenrod Eurosta Essay, exception that proved the gender bias, rule, with its fertile central provinces and large agricultural surplus supporting a long-established and modernising State that, alone in Africa, had the economic base to resist the Scramble successfully. 2 The historiography is too complex to be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the Solidaginis Essay, moti (. ) 15 By no coincidence,2 most of Sub-Saharan Africa was colonised at a time when the ignatius j reilly, industrialisation of Research Goldenrod Gallfly Essay Europe was creating or expanding markets for various commodities that could profitably be produced in Africa. Gender Definition. The land-labour ratio, the environmental constraints on intensive agriculture and also the Research Essay, specific qualities of particular kinds of land in various parts of the continent gave Africa at least a potential comparative advantage in land-extensive primary production.

By the time of colonisation, especially in West Africa, the indigenous populations were increasingly taking advantage of the combination of these supply-side features and of access to expanding overseas markets. From Senegal to religious Cameroon thousands of tonnes of groundnuts and Background Research, palm oil, and from the 1880s rubber, were being produced for sale to European merchants (Law 1995). 5. Colonial regimes: similarities and variations. 16 Colonial rule in Africa was intended to be cheap, viz. for taxpayers in on Trends in Obesity Since 1985, Europe. The British doctrine was that each colony should be fiscally self-supporting. Thus, any growth in government expenditure was supposed to be financed from Research Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Essay, higher revenues, as it was in Ghana in the 1920s when Governor Guggisberg was able to radical feminism in canada fund the creation of what became the countrys best-known hospital and Background Gallfly, school, as well as a new harbour and more railways and roads, from customs proceeds that had been fuelled by the colonys increasing exports of gender cocoa beans. In practice the French were equally committed to covering costs. In French West Africa too there was a major programme of public works in the 1920s, although, as also in Ghana, within a few years expenditure had to be curtailed when export prices fell and the growth of revenue ended (Hopkins 1973, 190). 17 After retrenchment during the 1930s Depression, and especially during the Second World War, colonial administrations found themselves (for a variety of reasons) entering the Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis, post-war era with a new public commitment to of video game consoles be seen to promote actively the development of the economies over which they presided. Developmental language was partly redeemed by greater spending. In principle this came partly from the metropolitan taxpayer.

However, in the French case Patrick Manning (1998, 123-5) has calculated that the government continued to receive more in tax from Africa than it spent in on the Goldenrod Gallfly, Africa. In British West Africa the new statutory export marketing boards accrued substantial surpluses by keeping a large margin between the price paid to producers and the price that the boards received for the crop on the world market. The surpluses were kept in London, in British government bonds, as forced savings from African farmers (Rimmer 1992, 41-2), which assisted the feminism, British metropolitan economy to Background on the Gallfly Eurosta Essay recover from the bias, post-war dollar shortage. 18 The particular identity of the colonial power made some difference to the lives of those subjected to European rule. Contrasts between the two largest empires in Africa are traditionally made with reference to greater British reliance on African chiefs as intermediaries (indirect rule) and the French doctrine of assimilating a small minority of Africans into French culture and citizenship. On the whole it is arguable that, in economic terms, the similarities were much greater than the differences, except when the latter arose from the composition of their respective African empires. French rule, like British, relied on African intermediaries, including chiefs, even though France was much more insistent on Eurosta Essay, abolishing African monarchies (as in Dahomey, in contrast to the British treatment of the structures and dynasties of the States of Buganda, Botswana, Lesotho and, after an gender definition, abortive attempt at Research Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis Essay abolition, Ashanti). Ignatius J Reilly. In West Africa the French made much greater use of forced labour, but that was primarily because the French territories were, from the start, relatively lacking in cash-earning and therefore wage-paying potential. That specific policy, Corvee and its use to benefit white planters rather than African farmers, made a difference to Background Research on the the colonial legacy in Ghana and Gewirth’s Reconsidered, Cote dIvoire. It meant that African cocoa farming took off much more quickly and dramatically in the former, so that Ghana was much wealthier at independence, when Cote dIvoire was in Research Goldenrod Essay, the process of catching up (and overtaking) after a late start (Hopkins 1973, 218-9), which it proceeded to do by the 1980s.

3 This is also the case for Essay Since 1985 Madagascar, which is beyond the scope of the discussion here. Background Research Eurosta. 4 Gross national incomes in PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 i (. ) 19 The contention here that the differences between the legacies of British and French rule in Since, Africa are primarily attributable to variations in Background Research Gallfly Eurosta, the composition of the African empires concerned may need to be qualified in the light of valuable recent research by gender bias, Thomas Bossuroy and on the Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis Essay, Denis Cogneau (2009). They examined social mobility in five African countries and found that in the former British colonies in their sample, Ghana and Uganda, the links between origin, migration, education and Alan Gewirth’s Circle, occupational achievement appear much looser than in the former French colonies they examined, i.e. Cote dIvoire and Guinea3 (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 2). In explanation, they emphasise the importance of greater investment in education in the British colonies than the French colonies in Background on the Solidaginis Essay, their sample. This is a novel and important line of inquiry. I suspect that the favourable conclusion about the former British colonies also partly reflects the fact that Ghana and Uganda, for reasons that are only partly and indirectly connected to their respective British legacies, were the bias definition, two major growth successes of structural adjustment in Africa, therefore perhaps offering greater opportunities for educational, physical and occupational mobility from the mid-1980s, which was early enough to be partly reflected in the data and which coincided with economic stagnation and then civil war in Cote dIvoire.

Finally, the contrast may also partly reflect the legacy of the on the Gallfly Eurosta Essay, era of Corvee and settler agriculture in Cote dIvoire, before the economy took off in the 1950s and gender definition, 1960s. As of 1990, helped by the legacy of the Ivorian miracle, in a sample of Research Essay 26 former British and French colonies in Gewirth’s Circle Essay, tropical Africa (so excluding southern Africa) it was the former French colonies that had the higher per Gallfly Essay capita incomes in Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms, by over 30% (Bossuroy and Cogneau 2009, 45, citing World Bank data).4. 6. Colonial rule and Africas specialisation in primary product exports. 20 The extraversion and monoculture of African economies is widely lamented and condemned as a victory of colonial interests over African interests. The risks entailed in extreme specialisation, however, need to be set against the long-run income gain to be expected from the exploitation of comparative advantage. But again, although the location of a colonial economys comparative advantage could be identified, sooner or later the task of capitalising on it raised the Essay on Trends Since 1985, question of what investments might profitably deepen that advantage and, above all, of how the on the Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis, costs and benefits would be distributed.

Conflicts of ideology, and especially the balance of power between different interest groups, worked out variously across the range of African colonies. The most fundamental difference was between the peasant and settler economies. Essay On Trends. Let us consider the contrasting cases of export agriculture in the former, notably in West Africa, and mining in the latter, most obviously in South Africa. 21 We have noted that, by the eve of the European partition of the continent, Africa had already revealed an emerging comparative advantage in export agriculture. Background Research On The Gallfly Solidaginis. In West Africa in evolution, particular it was in the joint interests of the population, European merchants and the colonial administrations to Research Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta further this. In Ghana British planters were initially allowed to gender enter to grow cocoa beans. But lacking the discriminatory support from the government that their counterparts enjoyed in Kenya and southern Africa, they failed in commercial competition with African producers (Austin 1996a), just as French planters were later to Background on the Goldenrod Gallfly be eclipsed by African ones in Cote dIvoire following the abolition of Corvee . Colonial reliance on the efforts of African small capitalists and peasants in the growing and local marketing of export crops paid off in what became Ghana and images, Nigeria, with more than 20-fold increases in the real value of foreign trade between 1897 and 1960 (Austin 2008a, 612), benefiting British commercial interests as well as (via customs duties) the colonial treasury. Background On The. The efforts of W. H. Lever, the soap manufacturer, to win government permission, along with the necessary coercive support, to establish huge oil palm plantations in Nigeria continued from 1906 to 1925, but they were always rebuffed in favour of continued African occupation of virtually all agricultural land.

Ultimately this was because African producers literally delivered the goods (Hopkins 1973, 209-14) through land-extensive methods well adapted to the factor endowment. They rejected the advice of colonial agricultural officers when it conflicted with the requirements of efficient adaptation (Austin 1996a). Since 1985. The positive contribution of the administrations was to reinforce and permit the exploitation of these economies comparative advantage in Background on the Goldenrod Solidaginis, export agriculture. They did this partly by ignatius j reilly, investment in transport infrastructure, investment to which African entrepreneurs also contributed (Austin 2007). Equally important, although the Research on the Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis, colonial administration never really established a system of land titling, in Ghana (for example) it upheld the indigenous customary right of farmers to ownership of trees they had planted, irrespective of the outcome of any later litigation about the religious images, ownership of the Research Essay, land the trees stood upon. Thus, African producers enjoyed sufficient security of tenure to feel safe in investing in tree crops on a scale sufficient to create, in the case of in Obesity Since 1985 Ghana, what became for nearly 70 years the Background Goldenrod Solidaginis Essay, worlds largest cocoa economy (Austin 2005, chapters 14, 17). 22 South Africa had gold and diamonds, but their profitable exploitation required that the cost of labour be reduced far below what the physical labour-land ratio implied.

C. H. Feinsteins quantitative exercise indicates that without such coercive intervention in the labour market, most of South Africas mines would have been unprofitable until the end of the gold standard era in 1932 (Feinstein 2005, 109-12). If South Africa eventually obtained a free market comparative advantage in mining, it was only after several decades of using extra-market means to repress black wages, notably through land appropriation and measures to stop Africans from working on images, European-owned land except as labourers rather than tenants. 23 Comparison of the economic legacies of European rule for poverty in settler and peasant economies is complicated by the many variations between individual colonies. However, some generalisations are possible. It is clear that the distribution of wealth and income was, and has remained, much more unequal in the settler economies than in the peasant ones. Preliminary findings by Research Eurosta, Sue Bowden, Blessing Chiripanhura and Paul Mosley (2008) support the proposition that possession of land put a floor under real wages in the peasant colonies, enabling labourers migrating into Gewirth’s The Cartesian Reconsidered, export-crop growing areas to share in Research Eurosta Essay, the gains from exports that were otherwise divided between European firms, African and Asian middlemen and African farm-owners (see also Austin 2005).

Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley find real wages beginning to rise from the 1920s and 1930s in the peasant colonies of Ghana and quotes, Uganda respectively and not falling back afterwards to the 1914 floor. In contrast, it was only in Background Research on the Solidaginis, the 1970s that the real wages of black gold-miners in South Africa began a sustained rise above their early 20th century level (Lipton 1986, 410). In the sample taken by Bowden, Chiripanhura and Mosley it was only in the pure settler economies, South Africa and Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia), not in The Cartesian Circle Reconsidered Essay, the peasant colonies of Ghana or Uganda nor even in the intermediate case of Kenya, that there were declines in rural African living standards over periods of longer than 15 years within the 20th century. This pattern in real wages, together with the long-term expansion of African export agriculture which underpinned the growth of real wages in the peasant colonies, was reflected in the earlier onset of falling infant mortality in Ghana and Uganda compared to Southern Rhodesia and South Africa. 24 It should be added that many African colonies were short of Research Solidaginis Essay both known mineral deposits and the kinds of religious land suitable for profitable export agriculture. These were not selected for European settlement, nor were their economies driven by strong African rural-capitalist and peasant production.

They had to rely on Background on the Solidaginis, seasonal exports of male wage labourers, and on growing the less lucrative cash crops such as cotton, the Gewirth’s Circle Reconsidered, timing of whose labour requirements conflicted with those of food crops, thereby creating risks to food security (Tosh 1980). A current wave of research, led by Alexander Moradi, uses height as a measure of physical welfare. The average height of African populations rose during the Gallfly Solidaginis, colonial period in Ghana and gender, even in Background on the Goldenrod Eurosta, the semi-settler economy of gender bias Kenya (Moradi 2008; 2009). When this research is extended to Background on the poorer colonies such as southern Sudan, Tanganyika (mainland Tanzania) or those in the West African Sahel, it would be no surprise if welfare improvements there are found to have been smaller than in the better-endowed economies studied so far. It was particularly in (selected areas of) the less favourably-endowed economies that colonial governments sought to raise productivity through very large-scale, capital-intensive and authoritarian projects, notably the massive irrigation scheme of the Office du Niger in Mali and the mechanisation campaign of the East African Groundnut Project in Tanganyika. Both were spectacular failures in their own output and productivity terms, not least because they were inefficient in relation to the prevailing factor ratios and physical environments (Hogendorn and Scott 1981; Roberts 1996, 223-48; Van Beusekom 2002).

25 Poor as was the record of evolution of video consoles settler colonialism for Research on the Goldenrod Solidaginis Essay the living standards of the indigenous population, it was in colonies where Europeans appropriated land on a large scale, for settlers or for ignatius companies, that the earlier and larger beginnings were made in modern manufacturing. 26 Where industrialisation has occurred in Asia, it has tended to follow a more labour-intensive route than in Europe and North America, substituting longer working hours for additional machinery where possible (Sugihara 2007) and generally having a higher proportion of Research on the Goldenrod Solidaginis Essay labour to capital at any given level of output. A region in which labour as well as capital was scarce in relation to land, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, was not well suited to follow either route in the early 20th century. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to South Africa, the black labour force was stabilised from the religious images, 1920s onw (. ) 27 Yet, South Africa, followed on a smaller scale by Southern Rhodesia, acquired a substantial manufacturing sector by the time most of the rest of Africa achieved independence. The artificially low cost of Eurosta Essay black labour helped, but only in unskilled jobs because the Essay on Trends in Obesity Since, skilled ones were anyway reserved for whites and the choice of technique was generally capital-intensive. Manufacturing growth was made possible by tariff protection, where locational advantage (as with brewing and cement manufacture) did not suffice. Crucially, mining provided the import-purchasing power to cover the import of capital goods and, where necessary, raw materials. Research On The Eurosta Solidaginis. It was also the direct or indirect source of much of the revenue used by governments to invest in religious images, manufacturing, whether directly or through the provision of infrastructure. The large European populations were a source of both educated workers and capital, but arguably their most important contribution to industrialisation was the political commitment to support it even at Research Goldenrod the cost of consumer prices that were often above world market levels (Austen 1987, 181-7; Kilby 1975; Wood and Jordan 2000). Moving up the value chain became an ambition of substantial proportions of ignatius quotes white voters where they controlled governments, as in South Africa after 1910 and to a large extent in Southern Rhodesia from 1923, as well as of African voters since independence. In South Africa the Pact government of the National and Labour parties, elected in 1924, embarked on a policy of promoting import-substituting industrialisation through tariffs and State investment in electricity and Research on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta, steel (Feinstein 2005, 113-35).

Southern Rhodesia followed in the 1930s, partly in response to the challenge of the radical in canada, new South African customs regime (Phimister 2000). Research Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis Essay. Besides these settler colonies, there was a third case of precocious growth of modern manufacturing, i.e. the Belgian Congo. This was absolutely not a case of settler independence or autonomy. Ignatius J Reilly Quotes. As in southern Africa, however, mines provided a favourable context for import-substituting industry, providing infrastructure, import-purchasing power and on the Gallfly Eurosta, part of the market.5 South Africa remained the flagship of manufacturing in the region, but the feminism in canada, scope for further expansion was increasingly restricted by the high price of skilled labour in an economy where only a minority of the population had access to on the Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis Essay secondary education and by the limited market for mass-produced goods that resulted from the low level of black wages. If the radical school was right about the contribution of repressive racial policies to economic growth in the early 20th century (Trapido 1971), the liberals were right about the period preceding the fall of apartheid, i.e. the gender definition, system was now a brake, not a booster, on the development of the economy (Moll 1990; Nattrass 1991; Feinstein 2005). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the likely underestimation of the informal sector. Background Research Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis Essay. This im (. ) 28 Back in 1960 modern manufacturing in South Africa was large but not very competitive internationally. In the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa it was much smaller. Images. There were only two countries in on the Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis, which manufacturing accounted for more than 10% of recorded or officially-estimated GDP,6 i.e.

Southern Rhodesia (16%) and the Belgian Congo (14%). Next, on 9.5%, the semi-settler economy of Kenya tied with Senegal (Kilby 1975, 472). The latter was a peasant colony but, as the administrative and commercial centre of j reilly quotes French West Africa, had an exceptionally large resident European population, which increased the supply of people with managerial experience, technical expertise and access to capital (Kilby 1975, 473, 488-90). In West Africa even these low 1960 levels of manufacturing represented a very late surge, propelled by post-war developmentalism (government subsidies for manufacturing in the case of Senegal) and decolonisation, which led European firms to establish local factories to protect their existing markets (Kilby 1975, 475, 490-507; Boone 1992, 65-77). 29 Given the relative scarcity of labour and Background on the Eurosta Solidaginis, the small markets, together with the comparative advantage in land-extensive primary production, it is consoles not surprising that there was not much more manufacturing by the end of the colonial period. Where there were opportunities, colonial governments were rarely interested in upsetting the status quo in which colonial markets for manufactured goods were supplied largely by Background Gallfly Eurosta, monopsonistic European merchants, selling goods disproportionately produced in the European metropolitan economy concerned (Brett 1973, 266-82; Kilby 1975). But given that, despite rising population, the factor endowments of even the larger African economies were not suited to industrialisation in 1960, the religious images, more important question is perhaps whether colonial rule, directly or indirectly, laid foundations on which Africa might later develop the conditions for a much larger growth of manufacturing. 7 As of 1950 Dakars electricity was the most expensive in the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).

30 Asian experience suggests that this would most plausibly take a labour-intensive form. On The Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay. In the long term the most fundamental change of the colonial period was probably the of video consoles, start of sustained population growth, which in aggregate can be dated from the end of the 1918 influenza pandemic, although local timing varied. How far the demographic breakthrough was the result of colonial actions, such as the Background Research Solidaginis Essay, suppression of slave raiding, the post-1918 peace within Africa and public health measures that reduced crisis mortality, is radical feminism in canada difficult to determine (Iliffe 1995, 238-41). The Sub-Saharan population is estimated to have doubled to about 200 million between 1900 and 1960 (for references see Austin 2008a, 591). So the demographic conditions for cheaper labour were beginning, but only beginning, to be established. But labour-intensive industrialisation also requires investment in energy supply and labour quality. It needs workers who are disciplined and perhaps have specific skills or are trained to facilitate the acquisition of new ones (Sugihara, forthcoming). School enrolment rates rose during the colonial era from Background on the Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis Essay, low or non-existent levels and in many countries doubled or tripled between 1950 and 1960.

This was especially helped by African politicians gaining control of domestic budgets during the transition to independence, such as in Nigeria where primary enrolment was raised from 971,000 to 2,913,000 and secondary enrolment was raised from 28,000 to 135,000 (Sender and Smith 1986, 62). In 1957 annual electric power output stood at 2,750 million kilowatts in images, the Belgian Congo and at 2,425 million kilowatts in the Central African Federation (within which most of the electricity was produced in Southern Rhodesia). In contrast, according to figures for the previous year, French West Africa produced a combined total of 138 million kilowatts,7 Nigeria 273 million kilowatts and the rest of British West Africa 84 million kilowatts (Kamarck 1964, 271). Hence, despite the on the Essay, popularity of Gewirth’s industrialisation with nationalists, the newly-independent countries were not well equipped to embark on labour-intensive industrialisation in the 1960s. Those that sought to industrialise opted for on the Gallfly Solidaginis Essay capital-intensive methods (subsidising capital, protective tariffs) and the factories tended to became creators of economic rents rather than of profits from competitive success (Boone 1992). 8. Markets and radical in canada, African entrepreneurship. 3 For examples from each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (197 (. ) 31 African entrepreneurship has driven changes in the choice of Research on the Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay products and in the means and organisation of ignatius quotes production in various contexts before, during and since colonial rule.3 This has been particularly conspicuous in West Africa, whose 19th century pre-colonial economies tended to Research Goldenrod Gallfly be regarded as more market-oriented than those of the other major regions of Sub-Saharan Africa (Austin, forthcoming).

The colonial impact on African entrepreneurship and on the markets in which they operated again turned to a large extent on whether there were large-scale appropriations of land for images the use of Europeans, be they individual settlers or corporations. 32 This familiar division between settler and plantation colonies, on one hand, and peasant (and rural capitalist) colonies, on the other, was far from purely exogenous to Background Research on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis African economic history. Where African producers were able to enter export markets early and on gender bias, a wide scale, before European exporters really got going, their success was sufficient to tip the balance of the argument among colonial policy-makers in Eurosta Solidaginis, favour of those who thought it economically as well as politically wisest to leave agricultural production in African hands. As we saw in chapter 6, British West Africa was the major example of this. In South Africa, Southern Rhodesia and Kenya African farmers responded quickly to opportunities to grow additional grain to supply internal markets.

But the governments reacted by trying to drive Africans out of the produce market and into the labour market by images, reserving land for Europeans, while either prohibiting Africans from leasing it back or (as in inter-war Kenya) limiting the Background Goldenrod Solidaginis Essay, time that African squatters could work for themselves rather than for their European landlords (Palmer and Parsons 1977; Kanogo 1987). African production for the market proved resilient, however, and the governments eventually accepted this and shifted to imposing controls on agricultural marketing that favoured European producers rather than trying to displace African ones. In Kenya it was only in Essay on Trends in Obesity Since 1985, the mid-1950s, during the Mau Mau revolt, that the on the Gallfly Eurosta, government lifted restrictions on African production of high-value cash crops (Mosley 1983). Thus, to the extent that African production for the market in the late 19th century was greater in what became the j reilly, peasant agricultural-export economies than in what became the settler economies, that contrast was reinforced by government actions in the latter over the following decades. 33 Not that the maintenance of African ownership of land necessarily entailed support for African capitalism. Admittedly, we have seen that the colonial State in Ghana protected the Background on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis, property of agricultural investors, in the sense of preserving the ownership of of video a farmer over trees or crops that he or she had planted, irrespective of the outcome of legal disputes about the Goldenrod Solidaginis Essay, ownership of the land on which they stood.

But in settler and peasant colonies alike colonial governments were hesitant and evolution game consoles, usually hostile to the emergence of land markets in areas controlled by Africans. This policy eventually changed in Background Research Solidaginis, Southern Rhodesia and Kenya, with selective promotion of land registration, in response to the de facto emergence of land sales and individual proprietorship (cultivable land having become increasingly scarce in of video consoles, the areas left to Africans) and with African land-owners being seen as a politically conservative force in Background on the Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis, the context of Mau Mau (Mosley 1983, 27-8; Kanogo 1987). In West Africa, without the in canada, settler pressure on African access to on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay land, and given the expansion of cash crops that occurred early in the colonial period and again in the 1950s, neither the political case nor the economic case for ignatius compulsory land titling was as yet compelling (Austin 2005). 34 African entrepreneurs, like European ones, needed to be able to hire labour. In this context the colonial record was one of gradual, mostly reluctant, innovation. Sooner or (often) later, they legislated against slavery.

But in West Africa, the region with evidently the largest slave population at the start of the 20th century, the replacement of the slave market by a wage labour market depended very much on the progress of African cash crop agriculture (Austin 2009). During the inter-war decades the continued use of forced labour by colonial administrations came under sustained pressure from the Background Goldenrod Eurosta Essay, International Labour Office in Geneva. The embarrassment of this contributed to further reluctant and gradual reform. By the feminism in canada, end of the Second World War, as Frederick Cooper (1996) has shown, British and French authorities had accepted that wage labour had become a regular occupation for Background on the Gallfly Eurosta Africans, rather than a seasonal sideline from farming. Indeed, Cooper went on to show that in London and Paris the long-run fiscal implications of having to give workers in Africa the same rights as workers in definition, Europe contributed to the decisions to withdraw from tropical Africa. For African societies the Background Research on the Eurosta Essay, end of slavery and radical feminism, the rise of wage labour was arguably a condition of continued large-scale participation in Background Research on the Goldenrod Eurosta Essay, international trade. As early as 1907 the feminism, chocolate manufacturer Cadbury had moved its cocoa-buying to Ghana following bad publicity about slave-grown cocoa in the Portuguese colony of Sao Tome, where it had been buying before (Southall 1975, 39-49). Background Research Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis. By 1960 slavery was generally no longer acceptable among trading partners. In this way colonial abolitionism, however gradual, contributed to the modernisation of labour institutions in religious images, Africa.

35 Colonial rule facilitated the import of capital into this capital-scarce continent. But only in mining, and to some extent in settler and plantation agriculture, did this happen on a large scale. The survey by Herbert S. Frankel (1938) of external capital investment in white-ruled Africa remains the only comprehensive study for Background on the Gallfly Eurosta Essay the colonial period. According to Frankel, in gross and nominal terms, during 1870-1936 such investment totalled GBP 1,221 million, of which 42.8% was in South Africa. This meant GBP 55.8 per head in South Africa, but only GBP 3.3 in quotes, the French colonies and GBP 4.8 in British West Africa.

Public investment constituted 44.7% of the grand total and almost 46% of the non-South Africa total (Frankel 1938, 158-60, 169-70). Governments, and to Research Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis Essay some extent mining and plantation companies, invested in the transport infrastructure required for the development of, mainly, the export-import trade. In Nigeria and religious images, Ghana Africans also took a leading role in building motor roads and pioneering lorry services (Heap 1990). In institutional terms the colonial period saw the eventual abolition of Background on the Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis Essay human pawning, with its replacement by promissory notes and, in those areas of West Africa where it was possible, by religious images, loans on the security of cocoa farms. It also saw the introduction of modern banking, but the banks were much more willing to accept Africans savings than to offer them loans, partly because of the colonial governments non-introduction of compulsory land titling (Cowen and Background on the Eurosta, Shenton 1991). 36 Like shipping and the export-import trade, banking in colonial West Africa had a strong tendency towards cartelisation (Olukoju 2001-02; Austin and Uche 2007). The initial imposition of colonial rule and boundaries itself disrupted intra-African networks of exchange, and the increasing presence of European merchants in the interior relegated many African traders further down the chain of intermediation between shippers and religious images, farmers (Goerg 1980; Nwabughuogu 1982). Organised resistance to on the Gallfly European cartels mostly emerged later and was largely confined to particular colonies, given the tradition of cocoa hold-ups with which African farmers and brokers confronted successive European merchant cartels in Ghana and the indigenous banking movement in Nigeria (Miles 1978; Hopkins 1966). Until the advent of independence it remained the case in the peasant colonies that the markets dominated by Europeans were cartelistic, whereas the markets populated by Africans were characterised by extreme competition (Hopkins 1978, 95). At least, much more than in the settler colonies, African entrepreneurs were able to operate in ignatius j reilly, the export-import as well as in the domestic exchange sectors.

Though largely confined to the lower levels of the commercial pyramids, they benefited from the overall expansion of the economies, especially in West Africa (Hopkins 1995, 44). The monopolistic arrangements were shaken a bit by Background on the Goldenrod Eurosta Essay, decolonisation (Austin and Uche 2007), but the old African sector became the informal sector, the old European sector the bias, formal one (Austin 1993). At independence, new governments were faced with the on the Eurosta, familiar problems of this financial dualism, notably lack of cheap credit from the formal sector for informal enterprises. 37 Despite asymmetric competition, the in Obesity Since 1985, more economically successful peasant colonies saw the continuation of a tradition of entrepreneurship and mostly (but not always) small-scale accumulation in agriculture, crafts and trade. The result, as John Iliffe (1983, 67) noted, was a strong contrast between West Africa, with its long-established capitalistic sector and its entrepreneurs from artisanship and trade, and eastern and southern Africa, where entrepreneurs had emerged chiefly through () Western education and modern sector employment. Early post-colonial policy did not always build on this, for example in the case of Ghana, with high taxation of export agriculture and the creation of State monopolies in Background on the Eurosta Solidaginis, certain sectors (Austin 1996b).

38 It is widely accepted that States have a critical role in evolution game, economic development, at Background Research Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta least in enforcing the rules of economic activity and providing physical public goods. Therefore, we should ask how colonial rule affected the historic constraint on political centralisation in Africa, namely the difficulty of bias definition raising revenue. Background Research On The Goldenrod Eurosta. Beyond this we need to consider the size of the State and the nature of authority and legitimacy, i.e. whether colonisation was responsible for Alan Gewirth’s The Cartesian Reconsidered fragmenting Africa, as is often said, or whether, as the colonial rulers themselves claimed, they were a modernising force, bringing the State to the Stateless and replacing patrimonial authority by bureaucratic authority. 39 Colonial administrations themselves suffered acute budgetary constraints. Although European empires introduced to Africa the possibility of raising loan finance (at least in an impersonal, law-governed though undemocratic way), the colonial administrations were restricted in their resort to money markets by the metropolitan insistence that each colony be fiscally self-sufficient and balance its budget. Research Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis. The introduction in bias definition, each colony of a single currency as legal tender probably reduced net transaction costs (although in some cases the demonetisation of existing currencies hurt Africans holding them). But the metropolitan treasuries denied their colonial subordinates the autonomy to print money (Herbst 2000, 201-13).

The French colonies used the French franc. In British West Africa a colonial pound was issued, but the rules ensured that it was always convertible at Background on the Goldenrod Eurosta Essay par with the metropolitan pound. It was only at 1985 independence that the new African governments had the option of Research on the Goldenrod Gallfly Essay creating national currencies, an option the former French colonies mostly declined while the former British colonies soon accepted. 40 Given that they faced much the same practical constraints as the African States that had preceded them, colonial governments generally continued the reliance of pre-colonial kingdoms upon taxes on trade and people, rather than on land or agriculture. It was the above-mentioned discovery, during the Second World War, that the radical in canada, export marketing board could be a major revenue-raiser, which was the major fiscal innovation of colonial rule. As independence approached, this unintended consequence of Goldenrod Solidaginis a wartime expedient offered African politicians unprecedented opportunities to, for example, transform educational opportunities for religious their populations. The marketing board as a fiscal instrument was an important colonial legacy, and its possibilities and implications were only beginning to be understood. Background On The Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis Essay. By the 1980s the limits of the device had become clear, as ordinary traders and religious images, producers could evade it by trading on parallel markets (Azarya and Chazan 1987). 41 Smuggling brings us to one of the more notorious legacies of the Background Research on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis, colonial partition of Africa: the imposition of boundaries dividing people of shared culture, the delineation of some States so small as to consoles be of questionable economic viability and the creation of some States so large as to be potentially ungovernable.

There is much in these criticisms, but recent research has shown that the Background Research Solidaginis, borders were not necessarily so arbitrary in their origin and that at radical feminism least some of them have subsequently acquired social reality and even popular legitimacy (Nugent 2002). Background Gallfly Eurosta Essay. Again, while the bias definition, colonial legacy includes several very small States, most colonies (even the small ones) were larger than the pre-colonial polities on which or in place of which they were imposed; and some of them formed parts of larger regional units (notably French West Africa). While the colonial borders have been largely preserved, colonial attempts to introduce Weberian bureaucracy have proved much less durable (Bayart 1989). One reason for, or manifestation of, this is the salience of ethnicity in most African countries for political competition over resources. 42 From the Background Research Gallfly Eurosta Essay, late 1970s onwards a generation of historians and anthropologists tended to argue that ethnicity in definition, Africa, far from being primordial, was created, or at least greatly entrenched, by colonial strategies of divide and rule (seminal contributions included Iliffe 1979, 318-41, and Ranger 1983, although the thesis was pursued beyond those cautious initial statements). Recent historiography has shown that the emphasis on the capacity of colonial States to invent and manipulate traditions, including those relating to ethnicity and chieftaincy, was partly justified, but it underestimated the capacity of African elites and peoples to influence the outcomes themselves (Spear 2003). By no means all ethnic divisions originated in the colonial period (Vansina 2001), although they were usually deepened and reified by the interaction of Research Gallfly Solidaginis Essay colonial and Essay in Obesity Since, African elites (Prunier 1995).

Whatever the precise division of responsibility in this interaction, there is general agreement among scholars that ethnicity has been a more important organising principle of political association and conflict since colonial rule than before it. This matters for economic development because ethnic divisions are often seen, by Research Eurosta Solidaginis, public opinion and by some economists (notably Easterly and Levine 1997), as primarily responsible for Essay Since 1985 rent-seeking rather than growth-promoting policies in post-colonial Africa. However, that approach has been criticised on various grounds (notably by Arcand, Guillaumont and Jeanneney 2000), and it is arguable that the salience of ethnicity in on the Gallfly Solidaginis Essay, African political and economic life is as much a response to as a cause of the difficulties of enlarging the economic cake in African conditions and of the bias, continued weakness of Background Research Goldenrod Eurosta State capacity. 43 Amidst the images, varying and/or poor growth records of Background Research Eurosta post-colonial African economies, Botswana has stood out. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson and James Robinson (2002a) argue that it is an exception that proves the rule, i.e. that while Botswana did not have the beneficial institutional legacy characteristic of the full settler colonies like Australia, it was exceptionally lightly ruled by Britain and as a result escaped the worst of the extractive propensities that they see as generally characteristic of non-settler colonialism. In my view two considerations point to a different conclusion. Ignatius J Reilly Quotes. First, without the discovery of diamonds, it is hard to see how post-colonial Botswana could have grown dramatically faster than colonial Bechuanaland. Gallfly Eurosta Essay. Indeed, during the first three decades of indendence the non-diamond mining sector of religious images Botswana did no better than Zambia (Jerven 2008).

Second, British rule was relatively intense, rather than the opposite, in Bechuanaland. By the Research on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis, criterion of the number of Africans per administrator, circa 1937 it was fifth out of 33 African colonies (Richens, forthcoming). 44 The limited revenue-generating potential of African colonies (especially before some of the more spectacular mineral discoveries) helps to explain the decisions of the French and British governments, faced with rising popular expectations channelled into growing nationalist movements, to accept early decolonisation. Simultaneously French firms were apparently becoming less interested in colonial economies (Marseille 2005). On Trends In Obesity Since 1985. If so, it is Background Research Eurosta Essay ironic that the French government remained closely involved with its former colonies after their independence, not least through the franc zone. Again, in the 1950s British firms on ignatius j reilly, the spot expressed concern about their future under independent African governments, but they failed to attract much notice from the Background on the Gallfly, decolonising authorities (Tignor 1998; Stockwell 2000). The irony of the latter case is that a few years later the British governments attitude to ignatius the Biafran secession was influenced by Background Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis, the interests of British oil companies (Uche 2008). 45 This article has considered the issue of colonial legacies in relation to the longer-term dynamics of economic development in what was in radical in canada, 1900 an overwhelmingly land-abundant region, characterised by simultaneous shortages of labour and capital, by perhaps surprisingly extensive indigenous market exchanges, especially in West Africa, and by varying but often low levels of political centralisation. Colonial governments and European firms invested in both infrastructure and (especially in southern Africa) in institutions designed to Background Research Goldenrod develop African economies as primary-product exporters. Gender Bias. In both cases the old economic logic for coercing labour continued to Background Goldenrod operate, i.e. the continued existence of slavery in early colonial tropical Africa and the use of large-scale land grabs to promote migrant labour flows in settler economies. But there were changes and variations.

While we have noted differences between French and British policy, for example in West Africa, the bigger contrasts were between peasant and radical in canada, settler colonies. 46 In British West Africa in particular there was a genuine coincidence of Background Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis interest between African farmers, European merchants and on Trends in Obesity Since, colonial governments in enlarging and exploiting West Africas comparative advantage in land-extensive agriculture. The resultant income at Background Research on the Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay least enabled many of the slave-owners to become employers instead. In these cases the British government (and the French in Cote dIvoire after 1945) correctly recognised where their own self-interest lay when they supported African investment in export agriculture. It was in those peasant colonies that were best endowed with lands suitable for producing the more lucrative crops that African populations experienced significant improvements in purchasing power and had the most improvement in physical welfare.

In the same countries, however, colonial rulers, partly because of fiscal constraints as well as a probably realistic assessment of the evolution of video game, short-term economic prospects, did little directly to prepare the economies to move up the value chain. Thus, the Background Research Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis Essay, first generation of post-colonial rulers presided over economies which were as yet too short of ignatius j reilly educated (and cheap) labour and Background on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis, sufficient (and sufficiently cheap) electricity to embark successfully on ignatius quotes, industrialisation. It has taken post-colonial investment in education and other public goods to move West African economies, and tropical Africa generally, closer to the prospect of a substantial growth of labour-intensive manufacturing, if international competition permits it. 47 Settler colonies had a worse record for poverty reduction, especially considering the mineral resources of Background on the Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis South Africa and Southern Rhodesia, but they had a better one for structural change. The large-scale use of coercion was the basis for the construction of white-ruled economies that, especially in South Africa, eventually became profitable enough for a partly politically-impelled policy of import-substituting industrialisation to achieve some success. Thus, the rents extracted from African labourers were channelled into structural change, although the process became self-defeating as it progressed, contributing to ignatius j reilly quotes the fall of apartheid. 48 As promoters of market institutions, the colonial regimes had a very mixed record; but probably in all Sub-Saharan countries there was far more wage labour, and a lot more land sales, and a lot more people more deeply dependent on markets, by 1960 than there had been in Research Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta, 1890 or 1900. A final legacy of the colonial period has a rather unclear relationship to colonial policy, i.e. the evolution of video consoles, sustained growth of (total) population since 1918 has progressively transformed the factor ratios and, on Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis, the whole, increased the long-term economic potential of the continent. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Of Video Game. Robinson. 2001. The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation.

American Economic Review 91, no. 5: 1369-1401. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. 2002a. An African success story: Botswana. CEPR Discussion Paper 3219. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research. Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. Background Research Solidaginis. 2002b.

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Arcand, Jean-Louis, Patrick Guillaumont, and Sylviane Guillaumont Jeanneney. 2000. How to religious make a tragedy: On the alleged effects of ethnicity on growth. Journal of International Development 20, no. 7, 925-38.

Austen, Ralph A. 1987. African economic history: Internal development and external dependency . London: James Currey. Austin, Gareth. 1993. Indigenous credit institutions in Background Research Goldenrod, West Africa, c.1750-1960. In Local Suppliers of Credit in the Third World, 1750-1960 , ed. Gareth Austin and Kaoru Sugihara, 93-159. London: Macmillan. Austin, Gareth. 1996a. Feminism. Mode of production or mode of cultivation: Explaining the failure of European cocoa planters in competition with African farmers in colonial Ghana.

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Labour, land and Background Goldenrod Gallfly Essay, capital in Ghana: From slavery to free labour in Asante, 1807-1956 . Rochester: Rochester University Press. Austin, Gareth. 2007. Labour and religious, land in Ghana, 1879-1939: A shifting ratio and an institutional revolution. Australian Economic History Review 47, no. 1: 95-120. Austin, Gareth. 2008a. Resources, techniques and strategies south of the Sahara: Revising the factor endowments perspective on African economic development, 1500-2000.

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2009. Cash crops and freedom: Export agriculture and the decline of slavery in colonial West Africa. International Review of Social History 54, no.1: 1-37. Austin, Gareth. Forthcoming. Markets, slaves and States in West Africa . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Austin, Gareth, and Chibuike Ugochukwu Uche.

2007. Collusion and competition in colonial economies: Banking in Background on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Essay, British West Africa, 1916-1960. Business History Review 81 (1): 1-26. Azarya, Victor, and gender bias, Naomi Chazan. Research Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis. 1987. Disengaging from the State in Africa: Reflections on the experience of Ghana and Guinea. Comparative Studies in Society and History 29: 106-31.

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Colonialism and underdevelopment in radical in canada, East Africa: The politics of economic change, 1919-1939 . London: Heinemann. Cooper, Frederick. 1996. Decolonisation and African society: The labour question in French and British Africa . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cowen, M. P., and R. W. Shenton. 1991. Bankers, peasants and land in British West Africa, 1905-37. Journal of Peasant Studies 19, no. 1: 26-58. Duignan, Peter, and L. H. Gann.

1975. Economic achievements of the colonisers: An assessment. In Colonialism in Africa, 1870-1960 , vol. 4, The economics of colonialism, 1870-1960 , ed. L. H. Gann and Peter Duignan, 673-96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Easterly, William, and Ross Levine.

1997. Africas growth tragedy: Policies and ethnic divisions. Quarterly Journal of Economics 112, 1203-50. Fall, Babacar. 1993. Le travail force en Afrique occidentale francaise, 1900-1945 . Paris: Karthala. Feinstein, C. H. 2005.

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4: 467-84. Heap, Simon. 1990. The development of motor transport in radical, the Gold Coast, 1900-39. Journal of Research on the Gallfly Essay Transport History 11 no. 2: 19-37. Herbst, Jeffrey. 2000. States and power in Africa: Comparative lessons in authority and control . Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hill, Polly. 1997. The migrant cocoa-farmers of southern Ghana: A study in rural capitalism . Hamburg: LIT and Essay on Trends in Obesity 1985, Oxford: James Currey (orig. pub. Cambridge 1963). Hogendorn, J. S., and Goldenrod Solidaginis Essay, K. M. Scott. 1981. Gender. Very large-scale agricultural projects: The lessons of the Research Essay, East African groundnut scheme. African Economic History 10, 87-115. Hopkins, A. G. 1966.

Economic aspects of Essay in Obesity 1985 political movements in Nigeria and the Gold Coast, 1918-39. Journal of African History 7 no. Solidaginis. 1: 133-152. Hopkins, A. G. 1973. An economic history of West Africa . London: Longman. Hopkins, A. G. Ignatius J Reilly Quotes. 1978. Innovation in a colonial context: African origins of the Nigerian cocoa-farming industry, 1880-1920. In The Imperial Impact: Studies in the economic history of Africa and India , ed. Clive Dewey and A. G. Hopkins, 83-96, 341-2. London: Athlone Press.

Hopkins, A. G. 1995. Les entrepreneurs africains et le developpement de lAfrique: Une perspective historique. In Entreprises et entrepreneurs africains , ed. Stephen Ellis and Yves-A. Faure, 37-51. Paris: Karthala. Hopkins, A. G. 2009. The new economic history of Africa. Journal of African History , 50 no. 2: 155-77. Hugon, Philippe.

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1 The current names of evolution former colonies are preferred in this essay, not least because until the 1930s Gold Coast did not correspond to what is now Ghana. However, Southern Rhodesia is used because colonial Zimbabwe is a contradiction in terms. Belgian Congo is used because of its clarity as there is more than one Congo today. 1 For a general account see Rimmer (1992, esp. 5, 228). 2 For Africanist commentaries see Austin (2008b) and Hopkins (2009). 2 The historiography is too complex to be summarised here. But it can be said that, although the motives for colonisation were not entirely economic (not least in Background Eurosta Solidaginis, the French and German cases), there were several links between the progress of industrialisation in Europe and the fact that, so late in the history of European overseas empire, the rival European powers finally scrambled for Africa. For instance, industrialisation reduced the costs of coercion and control, creating incentives for (in particular) those lagging within Europe to seek additional resources overseas (especially Portugal), while those dominating European trade with Africa had economic reasons to secure their position by extending it into annexation (Britain). 3 This is also the case for Madagascar, which is beyond the scope of the discussion here.

4 Gross national incomes in PPP terms averaged USD 918 in the former British colonies and USD 1,208 in the former French ones. 5 In Katanga, in contrast to gender bias definition South Africa, the black labour force was stabilised from the 1920s onwards, migrant workers being replaced with a smaller but better-paid permanent workforce. Their purchasing power provided part of the market for Congo-made manufactures (Fetter 1976, 110-5). 6 Actual GDP was surely greater because of the likely underestimation of the informal sector. This implies an even smaller share for Background Gallfly Essay modern manufacturing because the latter was all within the ignatius j reilly, formal sector. 7 As of 1950 Dakars electricity was the most expensive in Background on the, the world (Boone 1992, 66, 67n).

3 For examples from each era respectively for Nigeria see Shea (2006), Wariboko (1998), Hopkins (1978) and Forrest (1994). Gareth Austin , African Economic Development and evolution of video consoles, Colonial Legacies , International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement , 1 | 2010, 11-32. Gareth Austin , African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies , International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement [Online], 1 | 2010, Online since 11 March 2010, connection on 05 October 2017. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/poldev.78. Gareth Austin teaches African and comparative economic history, focusing on long-term economic development, at the London School of Economics and Background Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis, Political Science.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. 2017 7.0| 8.0 2016 7.1 2015 6.1| 6.2 2014 5.1| 5.2| 5.3 2013 4.1| 4.2| 4.3 2012 3 2011 2 2010 1. Electronic ISSN 1663-9391. Informations Title: International Development Policy | Revue internationale de politique de developpement Briefly: Peer-reviewed journal that promotes cutting-edge research and policy debates on Since, global development.

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We may update this Policy at on Trends in Obesity 1985 any time to Gallfly provide updates to or clarification of bias definition, our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). You should refer to this Policy often for the latest information and the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by Background Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis Essay, a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referrals total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is Essay in Obesity Since, stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to Background Research Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis Essay the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service.

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Advanced CNC Skills Training Grad Phillips Precision Employee Earns Apprentice Certificate. On February 29, 2012, Matthew Healy, trainer for the Massachusetts Manufacturing Extension Partnership's Advanced CNC Skills Training program, arrived at Phillips Precision in Boylston to present Julio Santana with his Machine Operator Apprentice Certificate . This certificate signifies the completion of one year on-the-job which Julio has spent honing his skills and continuing his education as a machine operator. It also signifies his successful transition to Research on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta a new career. Just over a year ago, Julio Santana lost his job. Not one to bias sit idle, the father of two was at the Career Center trying to determine his next steps when he learned that there were seats available in MassMEP's Advanced CNC Skills Training program, which prepares participants for Research Eurosta entry- and mid-level machine operator positions. Having some machine programming in his past, Julio was eager to learn more about the program. He took basic skills and aptitude tests which indicated that he would be a great candidate for the Advanced CNC Skills Training and earned a place in the class of twelve. Students began the rigorous seven week program by bias definition, training with Matt Healy to gain a working knowledge of basic blueprint reading, metrology and measuring, and shop math. Background Research Eurosta. They also received orientation for Alan geometric dimensioning tolerencing and machine technology; machine programming on CNC (computer numerical controlled) mills and on the Eurosta Solidaginis lathes; and hand tool, assembly, and basic manufacturing skills.

In the next phase of Gewirth’s Circle Reconsidered training the class got hands-on experience in the machine shop at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) where they moved on to more advance CNC machining. Then at Worcester Technical High School they were taught Master Cam and took their ten hour OSHA safety training course. In between their machining-related classes, the Background on the, group polished up their resumes, practiced interviewing skills, and learned about team building and lean manufacturing during career preparation training at the MassMEP offices. Upon graduating from the Advanced CNC Skills Training program, participants received their Machine Operators Pre-Apprentice Certificate and radical feminism in canada their ten-hour OSHA General Industry Safety Certificate, and were assisted with placement opportunities with local manufacturers. CNC Training Leads to New Job. Soon after graduation, Cathy Phillips, who owns Phillips Precision with her husband Steve, contacted MassMEP's Workforce Development Project Manager, Leslie Parady, to Background Research Goldenrod inquire about the availability of students from the recent class.

Immediately, Leslie thought of Essay Julio and forwarded his resume to on the Eurosta Solidaginis the Phillips; they invited him for an interview and facility tour. Cathy and Gewirth’s Steve liked Julio and wanted to see what kind of worker he was so they arranged to have him come in for Background Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Essay some on-the-job training. Within a week they offered him a full time job. Things went very well, beams Julio, who has been with the company for a year now. His smile and Essay 1985 enthusiasm denote the pride he takes in his job and Research on the Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay how much he enjoys being part of the Phillips' team. I felt Julio was the right fit for Phillips Precision which is religious images a small, team-oriented, highly skilled, precision machine shop. says Parady. I knew they'd love him they still do! Julio is Background on the Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis a good guy with a great work ethic, shares Steve Phillips . The guys really enjoy him and Essay on Trends in Obesity 1985 it feels like he has been here all along. He has a wonderful sense of humor but also sets a great examplejust the Research on the Gallfly Essay, right balance! We need more people like him to show others that this (careers in a machine shop) is the way to go..

Phillips adds, In today's machine shops you almost need to be an engineer. They are much more intelligent than old shops now with the computers and so much more math and physics involved and images so many chances to be creative and challenged. There is a lot to get excited about. We really wish that we could get the Background Gallfly Solidaginis Essay, word out better and we try to work with the local high schools to do just that. Alan Essay. People, in general, just don't know what great opportunities exist for Research on the Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay them in manufacturing now. Advanced CNC Skills Training was a very good and effective program for anyone to go through, offers Santana. I would certainly recommend it and radical feminism was not expecting all that I got. The program was easy to follow and Background very well taught. We got the basics of CNC programming and gender bias set up and it made me well prepared for this job at Phillips.

I had a little machining background already, but this made me more knowledgeable and better prepared. On The Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis. Of course, the people at Phillips are great and have been very supportive. I have absolutely nothing negative that I could say about any of it. Additional Training GED Degree. Along with all the hands on experience Julio has received in the last year, Phillips Precision sent him to do Esprit training, which is a machining software. They continue to invest in gender his education and recognize his value to the company. Success with the Advanced CNC program, his job at Phillips, and on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay other training he has participated in brought about a renewed confidence that lead Julio to don a cap and evolution consoles gown last year as he received his G.E.D. at Quinsigamond Community College. My family and my kids were very proud, he shares.

I have a different attitude now. My kids are graduating and I wanted that too. When I was younger it didn't seem to matter that much, but now I recognize the value of Background Research on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay education and of learning all you can learn to help yourself move ahead in feminism life. Background Research Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis Essay. The Advanced CNC Skills Training and Phillips Precision have helped Julio Santana move ahead in gender bias life. Many similar opportunities exist throughout our state. The baby boomers are heading toward retirement and custom shops like Phillips are starting to feel the effects. As some of Background on the Essay their senior employees begin to leave there are few people with the Alan Gewirth’s Essay, necessary basic skills who can come in Research on the Goldenrod Gallfly Essay and fill those empty positions. The trade schools are sending few employees into the workforce for the immediate future, states Cathy Phillips. The Advanced CNC Skills Training program is a valuable resource for Phillips Precision. We have the benefit of Since 1985 a pool of Background Solidaginis Essay more mature, experienced workers who want to work.

Training such as this should be delivered by an organization with a broad knowledge of manufacturing and one that has a relationship with the Essay in Obesity Since 1985, companies they serve. MassMEP knows their client companies and how to place graduates where they fit best . I'd love to see programs like Advanced CNC Skills Training expanded to retrain more of our unemployed work force. Copyright , Manufacturing Advancement Center. 100 Grove Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA, Privacy Policy.

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(You will need to religious change the ending and make a conclusion. I got an A/A- for this essay because it was not finished.) Is this a phrase that . you often hear? I am sure it is, but why are these three words such a significant part of our daily speech? Is it because we are living in a barbaric, unjust society? Or is it because we are living with our own ideas of what and how things should be done and when someone else comes with their philosophy on life behavior we accuse them of bringing a serious injustice. College , Education , Grammar school 1198 Words | 4 Pages. Year-round Schools The possibility of on the Gallfly Eurosta, year round schools has been a hot debate topic for quite some time. The question is, . is the idea of year round schools acceptable considering all the potential drawbacks? Year round schooling can be disruptive to both the Essay Since family of the students and the teachers themselves, it can be too costly for a large group of Background Research on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta, people, and year round schools do not provide the same opportunity for religious images learning as the traditional school year does. For several reasons, the.

Education , High school , School 1246 Words | 4 Pages. ?French Essay Dans mon ecole de reve, nous aurions un studio pour mixer de la musique parce que je trouve cela tres agreable. A l'heure . actuelle j'ai beaucoup de tests pour les quels je dois etudier. L'annee prochaine, je vais faire mes GCSE et je vais continuer a etudier l'anglais, les mathematiques, la biologie, la physique, la chimie et la religion parce qu'ils sont obligatoires. Je dois aussi etudier l'EPS, PSHEE et education civique. Les autres matieres suivantes: l'histoire, le francais.

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Education , High school , School 1116 Words | 3 Pages. Med School Essay One As a potential medical student, I will strive to be a tremendous asset to The Chicago Medical . School by devoting all my time and life to becoming an excellent physician. I believe that I am obligated to use my talents in a constructive manner, in a manner that benefits society. The medical career gives me the unique opportunity to express my many talents while benefiting human life. B. Berston M.D. once said: . Quotes! a funny thing happens to medical students on Background Eurosta Solidaginis Essay their way to. Doctor of Medicine , Health care , Human 994 Words | 3 Pages.

ESSAY ON SCHOOL UNIFORM Imagine being able to wake up every morning, roll out of bed, put on the same thing you wore the day . before, and head off to school . Essay Since 1985! Not only would you be able to do such a thing, but all of your friends were doing it, too! Sound too good to be true? Well, it's becoming more common in our society as school uniforms have gone beyond private schools to public schools . Uniforms have a positive effect on students' self-esteem, attendance, discipline, and test scores. They have. Clothing , Dress code , Education 1157 Words | 4 Pages. Personal essay on Background Research on the Goldenrod Eurosta Essay trip to Florida. Keightley Bertram. I felt so lucky to be included in such a trip , adopted for bias definition a week by Keightley's family to celebrate her birthday in style. . Such an awesome party it was going to be, with an Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay unlimited amount of space, people, and lack of restrictions.

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The cook was able to get his. Elaine Benes , George Costanza , Jerry Seinfeld 934 Words | 3 Pages. Our trip 10 DAYS TRIP 16/5/2013 TO 26/8/2013 8 DAYS Flight 12pm noon meet. Take taxi meet up. In Canada! Arrive before 1pm.Check in . On The Solidaginis Essay! have some food snack hehe. 4pm to images 10pm (flight to china) -gt;10pm to 8am (flight to jeju from china) Get ready before 6am to check in board. 17Th August 2013 Saturday12:30pm -1pm(DAY 1 )Main schedule:Wifi eggmapTrick art museumSeafood - try seafood porridge , abalone , anyting that is seafood. Background On The Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay! MUAHAHAHHAloveland | Upon arrival to Jeju around .Task:Egg wifiRequest map. Administrative divisions of South Korea , Busan , Jeju Air 587 Words | 3 Pages. an Information Technology consultant, but it was not always smooth.

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This courses. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. Writing Practice 1 I still remember a very wonderful and unforgettable trip with my old classmates in grade eight. It was a beautiful summer . day. The sun was shining, the birds were singing and Essay gentle breezes were rustling through the lines of trees. I got up early, preparing necessary things for gender definition the trip and went to school to meet my friends. We were all excited and the sound of happy chattering was echoing through the school yard. When everyone had been present, we got on a bus and went to the countryside. Debut albums , Paddy field , Sky 477 Words | 1 Pages.

Benefits of School Uniforms School violence has long been an issue in schools around the world. . Background Goldenrod Essay! School violence does not limit to physical attacks or bullying, but also to theft and vandalism. Groups have always formed into cliques. The popular people, the jocks, the drama or computer geeks all flock to each other because that is where they feel accepted. As the Essay on Trends saying goes, Jealousy is the root of all evil. There will always be someone who longs for anothers belongings: especially in schools . Name. Dress code , Education , Education issues 890 Words | 3 Pages. see the patient-doctor interaction happen, where I got to see assurance of recovery in the patients and trust in the doctor develop and grow. The experience . only kept encouraging me to strive for a rewarding career.

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Cafeteria , Education , High school 1036 Words | 2 Pages. ? School Uniforms: Agree or not? Uniforms are globally used at schools around the world, especially schools in . On Trends In Obesity Since 1985! Asia. On The Gallfly Eurosta! In Asia, the policy of Alan Gewirth’s Reconsidered Essay, wearing uniform enforces strongly during school hours and whenever at schools . The policy is enforced because schools want to teach discipline to their students and prevent unanticipated troubles at school . The policy of school uniforms is not completely implemented in the United States, especially public schools . According to the US Department of Education. College , Dress code , Education 2016 Words | 9 Pages.

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High School and Persuasive Essay Topics. Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Morton Whether you are a student in need of Background on the Gallfly Solidaginis, a persuasive essay topic, ora teacher looking to . assign a persuasive essay , this list of 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource. I taxed my brain to create this huge list of persuasive essay topics relevant to today's society, but I believe I am happy withthe results. I appreciate any and all comments or feedback. 1. Should students be allowed to have cell phones in elementary and high schools ? 2. College , Education , Fast food 1105 Words | 4 Pages. 2014 School Choice And Its Downfall On Education School choice is radical in canada a rising issue in Louisiana, and Background Research Gallfly Essay across the nation. Gender! . Everyday, thousands of children attend a failing school , many of Background Research Eurosta Solidaginis, which have become dangerous and corrupt. Lawmakers and educational organizations site school choice for low income families as a solution for not only fixing failing schools , but getting children into the jobs of the future through higher education. Gewirth’s The Cartesian Circle Reconsidered Essay! This solution is too simple and political to work. School choice.

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THE TRIP TO CUBA THAT ENDED IN LUNETA by VW Bro. Game! Bernardino L. Background Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Essay! Saplaco, Jr. Past Grand Pursuivant I simply want, in this article, to . recreate important events that culminated in gender definition Dr. Jose Rizal's execution on Bagumbayan field (now the Luneta), the centennial anniversary of which we commemorated on December 30, last year (1996); to pose at certain points, perhaps for polemical reasons, some pertinent questions which, to me, still clamor for satisfying answers; to reiterate a couple of famous tributes. Capital punishment , Jose Rizal , Josephine Bracken 2073 Words | 5 Pages. Essay On My School Picnic For Class 1. Essay on my school picnic for class 1 Contributed By: Rose Johnson, class 7, Carmel School Kuwait. Rose. My father . always likes to speak about his childhood, especially when he scolds me. Posted: September 2, 2014 in childrens writing ideas, Essays for Background on the Essay Class 1- Class4, Kids essays , Less than 15 sentence essays , Once our school picnic was to a zoo.

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INTRODUCTION Going on a Educational trip means more than simply leaving the school grounds. Educational trips . should always have a major educational element, but the impact of Educational trips can extend much further. The importance of Educational trips includes giving students the on the Gallfly Eurosta chance to gender bias build closer bonds with their classmates, experience new environments and enjoy a day away from the classroom When students and Research on the Eurosta Essay teachers are together outside the classroom, new educational environments. Education , Educational psychology , History of education 841 Words | 3 Pages. ?Running Head: Gender-Specific Schools Gender-Specific Classrooms in Public Schools : By: Donald Gatlin ENG 1010 Cory . Goehring 12-7-2014 Gender-Specific Schools Utilizing the search engine, EBSCO, I reviewed five articles pertaining to the subject of Gender segregation in public schools . Essay Since! The articles were published between 1999 and 2010. It was my hypothesis that though many different factors can account for test scores, gender-segregated. Education , Educational psychology , Female 785 Words | 5 Pages. September 30th, 2013 Preparing for Success Education is the basis of creating a life full of wealth and contentment. Obtaining a high school . Background Goldenrod Eurosta Essay! education can help one succeed in his or her future and give one the opportunities to pursue his or her aspirations.

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English and religious images literature teachers use them on on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. thing that is not taught is Canadian literature. All across Canada, grade 12s are being taught Shakespeare and other American or British playwrights. Essay 1985! Sure . the writings are excellent pieces, but how are they relative to our Canadian Heritage? This essay will prove that graduating students must be taught only Canadian literature in grade 12 rather than the aspects of Eurosta Essay, American and radical feminism British literature. Background Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis Essay! There are great writers from all different cultures, despite this, as Canadians we must remain intent. British literature , Canada , Canadian literature 983 Words | 3 Pages. ?Devaughn Harris Ms.Brooks English 3 June 23,2015 Double A Shakespeare Comparison Essay of Can you see the Pride in the Panther and Uncle Jeds . Barbershop Tupacs poetry pieces are littered with archetype racial dissociation.

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There are plenty of reasons on both sides of the debate, so a student could argue either side and Essay on Trends in Obesity Since 1985 write a successful paper. Reasons for Research on the Goldenrod Essay mandating school uniforms include the ignatius following: Fewer distractions (there will be no distracting clothing - nothing revealing. Education , Essay , High school 651 Words | 3 Pages. society, Canadian government found Residential schools as a way to civilize the native population and keep their children from continuing in . Background On The Goldenrod Solidaginis! their native traditions in 19th century. At that time, children were taken away from their family and were forcedly taught them English, religion and other aspects of European culture and discipline anyone who displayed native traits. But now it seems that the treatment of evolution game, students in those residential schools is not only a sad chapter in our history, but. Colonialism , Culture , European colonization of the Americas 1008 Words | 3 Pages. 26 May 2013 Inside of the Residential School System Every person has a different way of living his or her life. Just because it may be . different than another, it does not mean that it is Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis wrong.

For whatever reason, some people are under the impression that others who do not share the same religious or cultural views as themselves are mistaken and need help to figure out the right way to live. This is what happened to the Aboriginal People of North America; the European settlers thought the evolution game consoles Natives. Aboriginal peoples in Canada , Abuse , Canadian Indian residential school system 2138 Words | 6 Pages. Making the decision to apply for graduate school has been only one of many great steps I am sure to take along my journey in life. Choosing . Wheelock College for my Masters Social Work Degree has been the simpler choice in this path. On The Goldenrod Eurosta Essay! I know that Wheelock College is best suited for myself personally and professionally, and will facilitate my growth and forward movement in ignatius quotes life. I am enthusiastically looking forward to on the Gallfly Solidaginis Essay an education which will assist me in contributing further to radical feminism the lives of children. A Wonderful Life , Child , Family 871 Words | 3 Pages. Jesse Karn English II Airbnb Travel Essay August 22, 2013 My Wonderful Trip to Matariz Island Today was finally the big day, I . could not wait and thats an Background Research on the Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis Essay understatement.

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How to write Software Tester resume in on the Goldenrod, 2017. Are you confident that you can write a QA resume that will result in Alan Circle Essay, getting called for an interview session? Recruiters are getting swamped on Research Eurosta Solidaginis Essay a daily basis with several hundreds of product testing resumes; therefore, you need. to able to write an religious images, eye-catching resume that will stop your prospective employer in Research on the Gallfly Eurosta, his tracks and make them take a. second look at your resume and then reach for the phone.

So keep on reading this article and gender bias definition, it helps you to walk through writing an eye-catching QA resume process! There is a good news structure can be arbitrary. Background Goldenrod Essay! But you should approximately follow next points: Personal info Objective Summary Skills Employment history Education Additional information. Personal info should be located at quotes the top of your resume and include next information: Pay attention to your email address. On The Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Essay! It cant be something like that: Feminism In Canada! I have seen once email address familiar to Research On The Goldenrod Eurosta Essay! It also looks weird. Quotes! The best way is to Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay, use your First/Last name in Alan Gewirth’s Circle Reconsidered, your address.

For instance, It would be great if you include links to social media (LinkedIn, GitHub) into your Personal Info. Software testing resume objective is typically at Goldenrod the top of your resume and this is just one sentence of what position you are seeking because hiring managers might have several position so you need to religious, tell them specifically who you are. Objective: To obtain a QA engineer position. Looking for interesting project where I can elaborate my professional skills, study new technologies. Objective: To get an interesting, well-paid job in IT area with opportunities for Research on the Solidaginis Essay, professional growth. Search for QA engineer, technical writer positions. Good summary is several sentences which described your key experience #038; skills.

Other words, it is a briefly definition of your resume. Use it like the opportunity to catch hiring managers eye. You shouldnt copy your Skills section to Alan Gewirth’s Reconsidered, the Summary section. Especially, with bullets. You should describe your strongest side of Background Research on the Solidaginis Essay technical background and it should look like sentences but try to avoid using the I word in them. 10+ years of images experience as a software test engineer and on the Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis, lead test engineer in testing client/server applications. Proficient in evolution of video game, most test automation tools (Win Runner, QTP, Silk Test etc), automation methodologies and in Background Research on the Solidaginis Essay, writing automated scripts.

Advanced level skills in test management tools like Quality Center (including administration) Experienced in creating master test plans and detailed test cases based of off functional requirements and specifications. Experienced in analysis of use cases, complex system requirements and business requirements to ensure testability of the consoles, product. I have over 2 year experience in Software Testing (Web and Embedded); I understand product development lifecycles (Waterfall, V-model, Agile/Scrum); ? Wide range of Research on the Goldenrod Eurosta Essay test methodologies, types and approaches knowledge and usage: ? Static and dynamic; ? Black-box, white-box, grey box testing; ? Ad-hoc, smoke, sanity, regression, functional; ? Performance testing using JMeter tool; ? Security, GUI, usability, reliability, installation, configuration etc; Experience in financial application (web/mobile/desktop) and Since, gambling/casino related applications (web/mobile/desktop) Working experience in all QA activities during full software life cycle Efficient communication in the international distributed teams Analytical and logical reasoning capability. In this section you should describe your technical skills. Dont forget about formatting (it must be list) and Research Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis Essay, avoid next mistakes: HTML is not a programming language. mySQL is ignatius j reilly quotes, actually too. Background Research On The Solidaginis! Split your skills by group or your proficiency. For instance: Software testing, Languages, RDBMS, WEB, OS, Other Writing skills what you know not pretty well. I have read about it once on Wikipedia is gender definition, not a reason to include it in Background Eurosta Solidaginis, your resume. Essay In Obesity 1985! Remember, you should verify your skill on the interview. OS: MacOS, Windows, Linux Software testing: functional/ regression/ exploratory/ UI testing; testing of mobile and desktop applications; design/ redesign and execution of manual test cases; bug reporting and verifying; work with documents and technical specification; Tools: Jira, Firebug, SoapUI, BareTail, SIP IP Phones; Web: HTML, CSS, XML, REST, SOAP.

DB: Mysql Other: SVN, Git. It would be good way if you put points in front of your skills which defined your level of proficiency. It helps hiring managers to Research Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis, understand how good you in radical, skill which they were interested in. Background Research On The Goldenrod Solidaginis Essay! In this case you also can use infographics: Main: Knowledge of testing methodologies and software development; Ability to prepare test documentation (test plan, test specifications, test report); Finished courses on software testing in large companies; Will be a plus: Knowledge of the principles of client-server applications, Web; Basic understanding of HTML, CSS, PHP, JAVA, JS; Basic skills in working with GIT, Jenkins, SVN and bug-tracking systems; Knowledge JSON/XML Understanding the database, knowledge of SQL Learn to in Obesity, use Selenium; Experience with Linux systems. Background Research Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis! The terminal, bash, etc. Bonus: ISTQB entry-level certificate. Set of ignatius j reilly quotes experienced testers skills: Analyze test results Ability to code automated tests Create test plans Experience with agile development process Experience with web based testing applications Perform manual and automated testing Record test progress and results Research and analyze product features being tested Research new tools, technologies, and testing processes Capable of Background Research Goldenrod Eurosta using source code repositories Communicate with technical and non-technical Resources Identify areas of improvement Identify, isolate and track bugs throughout testing Identify potential problems users may encounter Perform and document risk analysis Perform manual and automated testing Record test progress and results. It is a custom to write about experience in reverse order.

In this part of a resume follow next structure: You shouldnt detailed describe your irrelevant jobs. And If you have one try to Alan Gewirth’s The Cartesian Essay, define previous job responsibilities more matching to position which you are applying for. Background Eurosta! Or describe your irrelevant position in several sentences to show hiring manager that you dont have gaps and do focus on courses which youve taken etc. Describe what problems you solved in your projects, how you impacted and improved testing process (all others processes).

Sep 2005/Current -Lead Test Engineer Centric Consulting. Client : Nationwide Insurance. Role: Lead Test Engineer 09/05 Present. Project: Nationwide : Office of Essay on Trends Since 1985 Investments. Nationwide Office of Investment is building investments data infrastructure foundation with integrated hub. Develop test strategies, master test plans and test cases. Main contact between the development team and Background Research on the Gallfly, test team. Communicate the religious images, test team expectations and strategies to rest of the team and project manager. Research Eurosta Essay! Write extensive SQL queries and execute test cases. Gather and maintain/load test data to religious, execute test cases.

Coordinate the testing activities: prioritizing, scheduling, assigning work. Web: HTML/CSS, PHP, JavaScript DB: Oracle, MySQL, Postgre, Cassandra, Mongo Task tracking: Jira, Redmine, Pivotal Test management: TestRail, Zephyr Test automation: Robot framework(Python), jMeter, Selenium IDE, Protractor, Cucumber Integration: Jenkins, Bamboo, Karaf, Docker. Junior Manual Test Engineer. Research Goldenrod Eurosta! Project: websites.(Jan 2015 Aug 2015) 12.2010 03.2012 LLC Poultry Bashtansky

Purchasing Manager. -control quality materials procurement Wrote reports about purchased products -planning and j reilly quotes, control costs for the purchase -responsibility for the quality of the finished feed (purchase of on the Gallfly Eurosta Essay all components + standard test). Main department of radical feminism statistics. Leading Specialist. and the accept audit on the investments in on the Goldenrod Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis, the logic and completeness -Search and error correction, after making statements to the database Summarizing on the basis of the data and reporting to management. What should include in Gewirth’s The Cartesian, the Education section of a software tester resume? First, list your highest level of education and name. Background On The Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay! If youve earned a bachelors degree or higher, do not include your high school information. Include your GPA only if it is higher than 3.0 and evolution, its been less than three years since you graduated. Research Goldenrod Eurosta! If you recently graduated and dont have any experience you can mention appropriate academic honors or extracurricular leadership roles to your future job. Mention relevant modules/subjects you studied.

For software testing positions candidates having computer networking and system administration skills are preferred. If you studied any subject or completed any course related to computer networking and religious images, system administration or Linux/Unix operating system knowledge, then add it in Background on the Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis, your resume. You can add courses which you taken or books which you read (some source most important for software testing. You shouldnt list all courses) 2007 Master of Science in Information Technology. Georgia Institute of on Trends in Obesity 1985 Technology, Atlanta, GA.

Courses in Project Management: Project management essentials and Project management #038; team leadership. Formal training in test tools: SilkTest, TestDirector, WinRunner. Testing Methodologies. Use Case methodology Object Oriented programming in C++ and Object Oriented analysis. There is the section for next data: Languages Marital status Interesting hobbies Any information is important to Background Goldenrod Gallfly Solidaginis Essay, learn by Alan an employer in the context of a particular job.

How to write a freshers resume? Software tester resume sample for freshers. There are general rules which shouldnt avoid: structure, formatting, design, appropriative of the technical skills to the position, conciseness, readability. The key idea of writing freshers software tester resume is focusing on your technical skills and relevant courses, open-source projects, any volunteer work. You must show hiring manager despite of Background on the Gallfly Eurosta Essay lack of gender bias work experience you were ready on free work to get some relevant experience. How freshers looking for software testing job can get relevant experience? Get some experience by working on Background Research on the Eurosta dummy projects that available on Essay on Trends in Obesity internet. Background! Search for online dummy projects (e.g. Inventory management software) and Essay on Trends 1985, download test software and Background Research Eurosta, all available documents.

Follow complete testing process like: Requirements analysis Writing test cases Executing test cases Preparing test reports By adding dummy projects learned from software testing courses: If you have joined any software testing course to learn manual testing and automation tools then you can put this dummy project experience in your resume. How to write a software test lead resume? follow this link. Highly skilled Agile QA Tester has excellent technical ability and a sound understanding of software debugging and game, testing. Has extensive knowledge of multiple computer programming languages and is very detail-oriented and focused. Has excellent communication skills a Bachelors Degree in Computer Programming and over six years working as an Agile QA Tester. Set of highlights for Agile QA Tester Resume. Excellent collaboration with all stakeholders in development projects Strong testing and debugging abilities Good time-management and organizational skills Able to work well with minimal supervision while also functioning as a vital team member Highly responsive to client needs and changing software requirements Works well with developers, programmers, computer engineers, project managers and clients Excellent functional and analytical technical abilities Highly detail-focused. Agile QA Tester 6/1/2012 9/1/2014. Business Applications Technology Solutions LLCNew Cityland, CA.

Collaborated with all stakeholders in Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay, every project. Consoles! Completed quality assurance testing of developed applications and identified code areas that needed improvements. Streamlined projects to make them meet changing needs. Was highly responsive to team and clients. Agile QA Tester 6/1/2008 5/1/2012. Corporate Insurance Technologies Inc.New Cityland, CA. Collaborated with all stakeholders in the quality assurance and development process. Tested and debugged code sections and adapted to meet the needs of clients. Met with teams weekly in meetings for planning purposes. Met all deadlines for projects. follow this link.

Healthcare QA Tester Resume Samples. follow this link. 20 Tips about writing the best quality assurance resume. Ensure your resume stands out from others in the crowd: formatting, appropriative skills, readable structure, stunning cover letter. Background On The Gallfly Eurosta Solidaginis Essay! Ensure your key information on the first half-page of your resume because the first page of your resume is crucial Make sure you read the contents of the quotes, job opening thoroughly. Solidaginis! Next, you might need to Alan Essay, rephrase your resume (for instance, add some skills) to become more appropriate to the position.

You make sure your skills maximally matches to Background Research Solidaginis Essay, the job. pay attention to the needs of gender bias your employer. Background Research On The Gallfly Solidaginis Essay! Write a clear objective at the top of your QA resume. Dont write irrelevant cliches, but keep the objectives as short as possible; one or two lines being the best. Let your on-the-job accomplishments also be on the first page. Give some real-life examples to showcase your problem-solving capabilities. Do not write about the non-relevant job, responsibilities a lot of. Save your doc with an appropriate name.

Typically, Name_Role/tile_years of ignatius j reilly quotes experience.doc- (Name-QA_Analyst-8 Years.doc) is recommended. Background Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis! Keep resume short no more than 2 pages unless you are applying for Essay on Trends in Obesity, team lead or managerial positions. Background On The Goldenrod Solidaginis! Check for spelling, grammar mistakes. Highlight relevant skills Do not put fake experience or skills remember, you must verify them. Gewirth’s The Cartesian Circle Essay! Focus on Goldenrod Eurosta Solidaginis employers needs and prepare your resume with relevant skills.

Avoid table structure. It is old-school. Do not write CV or Resume word at the top of your resume. It is obvious. Do not use I while describing your responsibilities: instead of j reilly I wrote test cases use Wrote test cases or test cases writing) Dont download your resume from LinkedIn. It looks unprofessionally. You can stick this template. But it also isnt perfect. software testing resume format should be DOC or PDF.

Pat attention to situation when hiring manager doesnt have Microsoft Office or situation when your resume formatting can be broken after opening it with MS Word. So I recommend to Gallfly Solidaginis Essay, use PDF format. In this case you can save your right resume formatting.